1. What is a citizen?
    • - one of a few relationships we can have with our government
    • - Most common way to have citizenship is by birth in that country.
    • - You can apply to be naturalized as an individual (most often) or part of a group.
    • -Individual citizenship is granted when people have passed test or requirements (statutory law).
    • - Full participant of the state, this is a two way street. We owe taxes they owe us constitutional rights.
  2. What is a subject?
    • - defined as someone who can have only partial relationship
    • - with the state where they don’t give them any real rights. (slavery)
  3. What is a denizen?
    • - someone who happens to reside inside the jurisdiction that owes the sovereign nothing but they owe them everything.
    • - Chauvinistic term that says that certain groups of people are not able to fully participate.
    • -They areprotected by the sovereign.
    • - Indians in US are no longer denizens, but citizens as of 1924.
  4. What is an alien?
    - someone from outside of the country that is in some country other than thier own.
  5. What is comity?
    • -international law is governing how you are to act, meaning do unto others.
    • - This means you actually have a country but while you are there you must do as they do and recieve the same punishments if not.
  6. What is a stateless person?
    • - has no country
    • - almost never happens
    • -something has to happen to your country for this to happen to you.
  7. How do you become a citizen?
    • - Jus Soli (by the soil, or being born there
    • - Jus Sanguini (by the blood, born to parents from that country)
  8. How can you become expatriated?
    • -declare citizenship somewhere else
    • -commit treason
    • - imply that you will renounce your citizenship
    • - fight against the US in a war
    • - plot to overthrow the government
    • -go to places we are not allowed like Iran or North Korea
    • - vote in another country's elections
    • - the government has to actively pursue this course of action so it doesn't happen often.
  9. What are human rights?
    • * inate, inalienable and just because we are human*
    • -life - safety
    • - conscience -food
    • - water - shelter
    • -air -sex (procreation)
    • - association - expression
    • - education - health
    • - movement

    • -- Government has no responsibility to protect these rights by promoting them and providing them.
    • -- This is because the government can’t give you humanity so it can’t take it away.
    • -- If they do advocate any of these they become civil right.
  10. What are "old rights"?
    • - Bill of Rights are "negative rights" because they say the government can't do things
    • - Everything else is fair game.
  11. What are "new rights"?
    • - Positive rights
    • - equal protection under the law
    • - actually give the government power over the people by lessening ours
    • - make government bigger.
    • - more rights = more government
    • - not in the constitution
    • - open for judicial interpretation
    • - overlaps human rights
  12. Describe the "Systems Maintenance" model by David Easton
    • - is an input/ouput model that keeps everything from falling apart
    • - input is demands
    • -output is policies
    • - for this to work there must be a feedback look from output back to input.
    • - if the model is working then people are encouraged to support government
    • - if not, people keep demanding until they eventually demand a new government
    • - demands come from outside the boundaries of government (us)
    • - government is not moral
    • - government only responds to the squeaky wheel
    • - government does what the people demand
    • - we are not garaunteed a moral or rational government
    • - only garaunteed a participatory government- we have to work for it to work
  13. What are requirements to vote?
    • - 18+
    • - must be a citizen
    • - must be a resident of the district
    • - must be registered
  14. Who can't vote?
    • - Can't have been given a dishonerable discharge from the armed forces
    • - can't be legally declared insane
    • - can't be legally unfit (drunk)
    • - be a felon
  15. Who does/does not vote?
    • -older more likely than younger
    • -higher income more likely than less
    • - more educated vote more often than uneducated
    • - whites more often than blacks
  16. What constitutes a valid election?
    • - voters have to have a choice
    • - there need to be multiple representatives of different groups
    • - one man one vote (every vote carries the same weight)
    • - same rules for candidates creating an equal footing
    • - secret and safe voting situation
    • -accurate counting of the votes
  17. What's the Austrailian Ballot?
    • -voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum are confidential.
    • - The key aim is to ensure the voter records a sincere choice by forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation or bribery.
    • -modern world provides for pre-printed ballot papers with the name of the candidates or questions and respective checkboxes.
    • - Provisions are made at the polling place for the voter to record their preferences in secret
  18. What is the Indiana Form?
    -a ballot on which the candidates are listed in separate columns by party
  19. How are districts formed? Why?
    • - to maintain equal districts
    • - to prohibit gerrymandering
    • - must be cotinuous and contiguous and compact
  20. What is gerrymandering?
    • - eldrige gerry kept redistricting to include his friends creating an odd shaped district.
    • - this enhanced his chances of getting voted in and getting measures he proposed passed
  21. What does "equal chance for all candidates" mean?
    - level playing field in terms of money they can use, PAC's, and campaign laws applied across the board
  22. How are votes counted to maintain fairness?
    • - bipartisan count
    • - done in the districts so recounts are necessary to narrow down fraud
    • - Florida was not unique... it was just a close vote so drew attention
  23. Why do political parties exist?
    - to help people with the same beliefs or drives in government win elections
  24. Why do we have a 2-party system?
    • -not in the constitution
    • -it works in our system by helping determine a clear winner
    • - helps keep single member districts from determining the whole state's vote
    • - winner take all system helps keep a majority
  25. Why do we promote non-ideological parties?
    • -bi partisan doesn't encourage extremism because neither party will take one side or the other
    • - gives us a stable moderate government
    • - the fight or debate happens over the middle
    • - independant candidates don't get the vote and 3rd parties dont usually win but do influence the 2 party system
  26. What is a decentralized party?
    • - organized geographically and controlled the same way
    • - 3 centralized groups
    • - process of dispersing decision-making governance closer to the people and/or citizen.
    • - dealt with in small districts
    • - only come together for the national convention
  27. What is majority rule in regards to the electoral college?
    • - or block rule
    • - symbol of democracy
    • - means that the majority of the votes in a state determine who will get ALL of the electoral votes
    • - maximizes each states' impact on the election
    • - in our current system it means the winner must get 270 electoral votes
    • - president can get majority of electoral votes and not have the majority popular vote.
  28. What are some problems with the Block Rule?
    • - might not work if we ended up with a real 3 party race to keep this from happening we have a back up plan. The house will elect the president if there is not a clear majority. Senate will elect the VP.
    • - you can't know the total number of votes before the election so you really can't determine a full majority
    • - populous states get more attention
    • - electors in some states are truly able to vote their concience (almost never happens because they are installed politically and dont' divert)
  29. What is direct popular vote?
    • - an alternative proposition for determining the winner of a presidential election
    • - has it's own issues
  30. Who is EE Schutznieter and what was his theory?
    • -political theorist
    • - said that most people don't vote
    • - said we ask the wrong questions- people don't vote because it doesn't matter to them
    • - said that the non-voter has power because they actually decide the winner
  31. What term did Nixon coin about voting?
    • - silent majority
    • - if you don't speak up you actually agree
  32. Who started the idea of political interest groups?
    • - james madison in the Federalist Papers.
    • - said you can never get rid of self interest but you can pit one against the other to find balance
  33. What purpose do special interest groups serve?
    • - provide information to government officials
    • - make the demands that make the system work on behalf of others
  34. How is the power of a political interest group determined?
    • - size
    • - money
    • - leadership
    • - political climate of the day
    • - social status
    • - cohesion (voting power)
    • - focus
    • - allies
    • - they have many points of access to government via courts, executive offices, state, local, etc.
  35. What are advantages of single issue special interest groups?
    • - they focus and specialize just like the government
    • -provides for a constantly shifting set of allies depending on the issue
    • - can influence the courts with amicus curiae briefs, anyone can submit these arguments offering "friendly advice"
    • - direct info link to the courts about how their group would handle the issue effectively "lobbying the courts"
    • - use lobbyists to get their agenda out
  36. What is a lobbyist and how do they work?
    • - work for special interest groups to get their message out
    • - not shady people, usually well known and still have friends and collegues in congress
    • -they stay away from people that don't like them that they can't sway and work from their position of support
    • -we don't see the corruption because it is too subtle... buying a friend's daughter a gift, etc.
Card Set
Exam 2