Sppirochaetaceae 7.9

  1. What are the four clinically important species in the genus Treponema?
    • T. pallidum, pallidum
    • T. pallidum, enemicum
    • T. pallidum, pertenue
    • T. carateum
  2. what are the two species in the genus Borrelia?
    • B. recurrentis
    • B. burgdorferi
  3. What family is Leptospira interrogans in?
  4. What is the species in the genus Leptospira?
    L. interrogans
  5. Presumptive diagnosis of syphilis is done when there is a morphology similar to T. pallidum in what type of microscopy?
  6. presence of Spirochetes in what part of the body is inconclusive?
    oral cavity
  7. Spirochetes in the oral cavity should be identified how?
    immunologic means
  8. what type of immersion oil is used in darkfield examination?
    cargille type A
  9. what size coverglass is used in darkfield microscopy?
  10. what should be removed when collecting a direct specimen for possible syphilus?
  11. for direct collection of possible syphilus, blood should be express from the chancre untill _______.
  12. Specimens for Spirochetes that are to be tested using DFA should be ____ dried in a _____-free area.
    • air
    • dust
  13. Quality control for Spirochetes should be preforme dusing a scraping from where?
    gingival mucosa
  14. Oral Spirochetes and motility can cause what type of results on darkfield microscopy?
  15. insufficient exudates, RBC's, late lesions, and treatment can cuase what type of false result for Darkfield microscopy?
  16. These are tight, regular coiled, helical rods with slow, deliberate motility.
  17. what is the size of Treponema?
    5-20 u
  18. what type oxygen user is Treponema?
  19. What three areas are Treponema normal flora in man and animals?
    • oral cavity
    • intestinal tract
    • genital areas
  20. what is the geuns that is extremely susceptible to heat, cold desiccation, soap, osmotic changes, and disinfectants?
  21. this is the causative agent of syphilis.
    T. pallidum, pallidum
  22. What Treponema species is highly invasive?
    T. pallidum, pallidum
  23. what are the two forms of transmission of T. pallidum, pallidum?
    • venereal contact
    • congenital
  24. Congenital forms of this disease can cause:
    Termination of fetal dev't.
    premature birth
    fetal death
  25. T. pallidum, pallidum has an incubation of ________ days with an average of ____ days.
    • 3-90 days
    • 21 days
  26. This is the phase of syphilis where a chancre develops at inoculation site and stays for 3-6 weeks?
    primary syphilis
  27. how long does the rahs persist for in secondary syphilis?
    2-24 weeks
  28. in what syphilis stages does a rash appear and organism are most numerous?
  29. what is the subclinical stage or syphilis that has a range of many years?
    latent period
  30. what is the only means of detection of latent syphilis?
  31. this stage of syphilis lasts for 10-25 years and has CNS involvement, CV abnormalities, eye diseases, and Gummas.
    Tertiary syphilis
  32. This is the etiologic agent of Endemic non-venereal syphilis or bejel?
    T. pallidum, endemicum
  33. Treponema species that are not related to venereal syphilis are common in what age group?
  34. This disease is transmitted with mucosal lesions and is seen in North africa, middle east, and southeast asia.
  35. This is the etiologic agent of Yaws.
    T. pallidum, pertenue
  36. This is a non venereal disease characterized by eruptions of tubercles. it is endemic in Africa, South and Centeral america, and Pacific Islands.
  37. This disease is spread dby skin lesions and if untreated may infect skin, bones and soft tissue.
  38. This is the Etiologic agent of Pinta.
    Treponema carateum
  39. This is a superficial invasive infection of the tropics, central and south america.
    Treponema carateum
  40. This disease is spread by skin contact and has no long term systemic health effects, superficial infection.
  41. what is the species of Treponema that is normal flora in the human genital tract?
    T. refringens
  42. What is another name for ANUG?
    Vincent's Gingivitis
  43. In darkfield Treponema appear as what color against a black background?
  44. ANUG samples should be cultivated _________ on artificial media.
  45. Treponema from what site are extremely infectious, exercise caution.
  46. Treponema are said to have a regular or _________ corkscrew shape.
  47. Treponema have what type of motility?
    slow, deliverate back and forth movement
  48. What is the size of treponema?
    6.14 um
  49. Serological screenings for Treponema test for what?
    Wasserman/Reagenic antibodies
  50. Screening tests for Treponema does not test for what class of reaginic antibody?
  51. What are the two screening tests for Treponema?
    • Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)
    • Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR)
  52. Serological confirmatory tests for Treponema are specific for what antibodies?
    Treponema antibodies
  53. What are the two confirmatory tests for Treponema?
    • Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody (FTA-ABS)
    • MicroHemmAgglutination-Treponema p. (MHA-TP)
  54. This is a louse borne organism that cuases epidemic relapsing fever?
    B. recurrentis
  55. This is a tick borne organism that causes Lyme disease?
    B. burgdorferi
  56. Thin and thick peripheral blood smears are used to check for what during febrile episodes?
    borreli spirochetes
  57. how are Borreli spirochetes stained?
    wright's followed by 1% crystal violet (10-30 sec)
  58. What spirochetes are diagnosed by presence in the blood?
  59. serological methods are best for what Borreli? not for which?
    • best for lyme
    • not for relapsing fever
  60. these are helical rods that have 3-10 loose coil, 3-25 um.
  61. These helical rods are larger than those of Treponema, and have an actively motile lashing motion?
  62. these are all arthropod borne microaerophilic gram negative helical rods?
  63. hwat is the vector for B. recurrentis?
    Pediculus humanus subsp. humanus
  64. what are the tree worldwide prevalent infection areas for B. recurrentis?
    • poverty
    • over crowded
    • poor sanitation
  65. What is the reservoir for B. recurrentis?
    humans only
  66. What is the incubation for B. recurrentis?
    2-15 days
  67. After incubation B. recurrentis causes fever, myalgia and headache for how many days?
    4-40 days
  68. This bacteria can causes severe muscle disease, bone and joint pain, and hepatosplenomegaly?
    B. recurrentis
  69. What is the vector for B. burgdorferi?
    Ixodes tick
  70. what is the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S.?
    B. burgdorferi
  71. This stage of lyme disease is characterized by classic lesions, erythema migranes, lymphadenopathy. it is easy to cultivate?
    stage 1
  72. This stage of lyme disease is present weeks to months after infection. Characterized by neurologic symptoms, acute arthritis, meningitis, carditis.
    Stage 2
  73. This chronic stage of Lyme disease may continue for years and cause chronic arthritis.
    Stage 3
  74. where is B. burgdorferi is cultured from where?
  75. What is the best method for detection of B. burgdorferi?
    serological studies
  76. what is the media fo choice for B. burgdorferi?
    • Modified Kelly's
    • 30-340C
    • 12 weeks
  77. This is the pathogenic agent of human leptospirosis?
    L. interrogans
  78. What is the two specimen for ID of Leptospira in the first 10 days?
    • oxalated/hepranized blood
    • CSF
  79. After the second week and up to 30 days of leptospirosis what is the specimen of choice?
  80. What is the flexible, tightly coiled, helical rods that may be hooked at one or both ends?
  81. what is the size of Leptospira?
    • 0.1 um diameter
    • 6-12 um in length
  82. Leptospira stains poorly with what dye?
  83. what type of oxygen user is Leptospira?
    obligate aerobe
  84. Leptospira is best observed in what two types of microscopy?
    • dark field
    • phase contrast
  85. what are the two diseases caused by leptospira?
    • Anicteric leptosprosis
    • Weil's Disease (Icteric/Lepstospiral jaundice)
  86. what are the three symptoms of Weil's disease?
    • Mud fever
    • Hemorrhagic jaundice
    • Swineherder's disease
  87. This is a incidental dead end host in humans, that my be found in a wide variety of wild and domestic animals?
  88. Liptospira infections are incurred directly from what three sources?
    • streams
    • ponds/swamps
    • contaminated with urine of carriers
  89. what are the two portals of entry for Leptospira?
    • skin abrasions
    • mucosal surface contact
  90. this organism nests in lumen of nephritic tubes?
  91. This is a self limiting disease that causes a high fever with H/A for 3-7 days followed by an immune stage, may have aseptic meningitis.
    Anicteric leptospirosis
  92. what is the disease caused by Leptospira that has a 10% mortality rate, with liver, kidney, and vascular dysfunction and letha pulmonary hemorrhage?
    Weil's disease
  93. Direct examination of Leptospira can be directly examined using darkfield using what three sources?
    • blood
    • urine
    • CSF
  94. Fatal cases of Leptospirosis is cultured from what two sources?
    peritoneal fluid and tissues
  95. what is the two media of choice for Leptospira?
    • Fletchers semi solid media
    • stuart liquid (w/rabbit albumin)
  96. how is Leptospira incubated?
    25-30oC in the dark
  97. Leptospira should be discarded at ______ weeks if negative. Most positive shows at _________ days.
    • 6-8 weeks
    • 6-14 days
  98. what will be the appearance of Leptospira on the fletcher's semi-solid media?
    ringed area 1-3 cm below surface
  99. turbidity indicates what result on liquid media?
  100. Ture or false
    Microscopic agglutination tests can be performed on leptospira antibodies?
Card Set
Sppirochaetaceae 7.9
Microbiology Unit 7.9 Spirochaetaceae