1. Cognitive Levels
    • Stage 1: Dualism, Right vs. Wrong; Confirmation bias
    • Stage 2: Relativism, Reluctance to judge; all opinions are equally valid
    • Stage 3: Commitment, Relying on evidence and experience for best decision
  2. Characteristic of a good critical thinker.
    • 1. Analytical skills: recognize and evaluate arguments, discards faulty reasoning.
    • 2. Effective Communication: listening, speaking, and writing.
    • 3. Research and Inquiry Skills: gathering nd applying all available evidence.
    • 4. Flexibility and Tolerance for Ambuigity
    • 5. Open-minded Skepticism: overcoming personal prejudices. (skeptic is a person who questions things, cynic questions things but froma negative perspective, hopeful skeptics are open to new information, questions things with a positive attitude.)
    • 6. Creative Problem Solving: attempting to forsee all possiblities.
    • 7. Attentive, Mindful, and Curious: a willingness to consider multiple perspective,
    • 8. Collaborative Learning: considers the reaction of the "other side."
  3. The 3 tier model of thinking
    • Experience: includes firsthand experience as well information or empirical facts that we receive fro other sources.
    • Interpretation: involves trying to make sense of our experience.
    • Analysis: requires that we critically examine our interpretations of an experience.
  4. Barriers to Critical Thinking
    • Resistance: the use of defense mechanisms that interferes with thinking critically
    • Example: Avoidance, Anger, Cliches, Denial, Ignorance, Conformity, Struggling, Distractions
    • Narrow Mindeness: the inability to accept new or contrary information
    • Example: Absolutism, Fear of Challenge, Egocentrism, Ethnocentrism, Anthropocentrism
    • Rationalization and Doublethink: ignoring competing claims
    • Cognitive and Social Dissonance: when new ideas or social behavior directly conflicts with our world view
    • Stress
  5. Types of Language and their functions
    • 1. Informative Language: it is either true or false
    • 2. Directive Language: used to influence action
    • 3. Expressive Language: Communicates feelings/emotions
    • 4. Ceremonial Language: formal communication
    • 5. Nonverbal Language: communication without words
  6. Types of Definitions
    • Stipulative Definition: a new word or a new definition for an existing word
    • Lexical Definition: dictionary definition
    • Precising Definition: definition to reduce vagueness
    • Theoretical: explaining a term's nature
    • Operational: standardized measure for use in data collection and interpretation.
    • Persuasive Definition: used to influence others
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