What are the factors that create health inequities?
discrimination, gender, poor access to health care, unemployment, social isolation, dislocation of land, occupation, access to and level of education, geographic location, racism, government economic and social policies, socioeconomic status
What two ways can health inequities and/or injustices be measured?
Quantitative - epidemiology data, comparisons
Qualitative - Social determinants of health, access, legislation
What are the 4 levels of the ecological framework for health?
What are the social justice principles in health?
What are the levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
What does self actualisation mean?
It is about the quest of reaching one's full potential as a person.
Self-actualized people tend to have motivators such as: * Truth * Justice * Wisdom * Meaning
In Maslow's Hierarchy what are esteem needs?
can be acheived by recognition, attention, acomplishment and self respect.
In Maslow's Hierarchy what are Social needs?
Giving and receiving love
In Maslow's Hierarchy what are safety needs?
Safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm.
In Maslow's Hierarchy what are physiological needs?
Those required to sustain life, eg food, water, air
What does PABCAR stand for?
Amenability to change
When is PABCAR used?
Public health decision-making model.
Used to decide which intervention to put into place and whether to advocate or not.
What does this statement mean?
"For health promotion to be effective it requires the integration of health promotion activities across sectors"
Multi facted approach
Health sector alone isn't enough
need education, corporate support, government to work together
What is needs assessment?
A systematic method for reviewing the health issues facing apopulation, leading to agreed priorities and resource allocation that will improve health and reduce inequalities.
How is a needs assessment done?
Planning - getting started
Assess priotities for action
Planning for change
Which step of the Health Needs Assessment includes gathering epidemiology data?
Step 2 - Identifying priority
What strategies are used to reduce inequities of specific groups?
What actions address inequity?
Ottawa Charter Action Areas
Community Development (empowerment)
Increasing Health care
What is health care reform?
Reform - make changes for improvement
Set the policy direction to better connect hospitals, primary and community care to meet patient needs, improve continuity of care and reduce demand on hospitals.
Why do we need Health Care Reform?
Increasing burden of diease - chronic disease
Overcrowded hospitals or long waiting lists
Inequity - not all people can access the same care
What the priorities for Health Care Reform in Australia?
Improving access and reducing inequity
Better management of chronic conditions
Increasing the focus on prevention
Improving quality, safety, performance and accountability
What are the main elements of Australian Health Care reform?
Accessible, clinically and culturally appropriate
Patient-centred and supportive of health literacy
More focussed on preventive care
Well-integrated, coordinated, and providing continuity of care
Safe, high quality care which is continually improving through relevant research
Better management of health information
Flexibility to best respond to local community needs
Working environments and conditions which attract, support and retain workforce
High quality education and training
Fiscally sustainable, efficient and cost-effective.
Define majority norms.
Unwritten rules of standards that more than 50% of the population or community obey.
What are proscriptive norms?
Norms that "prohibit" you from doing something.
What are prescriptive norms?
Norms that "prescribe" behaviour, so they make you do something.
What are popular norms?
Norms made by the popular people or "cool" people. Align with Popular culture.
What are norms of specific groups?
Social or cultural groups that are unique to a particular group of people within a population.
What are physical, structural and social factors thta influence health behaviour?