RNR 316

  1. What is ecology?
    The study of the interrelationships of organisms and their environment
  2. Describe Lonesome George
    Species of Galapogos were spread among the islands, therefore there was a 'lonesome George" (only male). 70-80 years old
  3. What is a biome?
    large scale communities generally defined by plant assemblages
  4. What is a community?
    an assemblage of populations of different animals, plants, microbes, etc.
  5. Explain Range of optima, zones of physiological stress and intolerance
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  6. Two Physical Factors Permit Classification of the Major Communities are?
    Water and Temp.

    • Temperature= available light
    • Precipitation= available water
  7. Temp and Moisture are primarily determined by
    • 1. Solar Radiation
    • 2. Air and Wind Circulation
    • 3. Land Masses
    • 4. Ocean Currents
  8. Reasons Differences in Incoming Solar Radiation:
    • a. Angle of Incidence Changes and Dilutes Light
    • b. More Atmosphere (i.e. Particles) to Travel Through
    • c. Tilt and Rotation of the Earth = Seasonality
  9. Formation of Convection Cells AKA Hadley Cells
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  10. Oceanic currents
    • West coast always cold
    • North equator : clockwise
    • South equator: counter-clockwise
  11. Wind patterns
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  12. Rain Shadow Effect
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  13. Local Perturbations
    • Water has a high specific heat than air and changes temp more slowly than air
    • Seattle vs North Dakota
  14. Adiabatic Cooling
    Passive cooling due to expansion of warm air without loss of total heat content
  15. Adiabatic Heating
    Passive heating due to compression of cool air
  16. Hopkins Bioclimatic Law
    • cooling is similar between altitude & latitude
    • Altitude: cools 3oF/1000 ft
    • Latitude: cools 3oF/100 miles
  17. Marine System
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  18. 4 Major physical factors/determinates of aquatic environment
    • 1. Light
    • 2. Temp -> holds heat well, releases slowly
    • 3. Oxygen
    • 4. Pressure
  19. Lotic
    Flowing aquatic environment
  20. Lentic
    Non-flowing environment
  21. Lentic Environment terminology
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  22. Seasonality of Lakes
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  23. Abiotic Factors
    Environmental influences produced other than by living organisms -> temp, pH, humidity, salinity, sunlight
  24. Biotic Factors
    • Environmental influences caused by living
    • organisms->Competition, predation, disease
  25. Fundamental Niche
    • Determined by Abiotic factors only
    • idealized or theorized
  26. Realized Niche
    • Determined by Abiotic and Biotic factors
    • Actual
  27. Niche
    Is what the animal does, its 'profession'
  28. Natural Selection
    • Evolution: Genetic change over time
    • Adaptation: Genetic change that improves function
    • Natural Selection: Differential reproduction of individuals that differ by >= 1 genetic trait
  29. Natural Selection Requirements
    • Variation: Traits have to be variable
    • Heritable: Traits have to have a genetic basis
    • Differential Reproduction: heritable traits must be passed on in different proportions
  30. Darwinism Fitness
    Maximizing the number of genes that are passed on to the next generation
  31. Types of natural selection
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Card Set
RNR 316
Test 1