1. what is psychology?
    the study of mental processess and behavior
  2. nature vs nurture
    • nature:inborn tendencies,genetically based traits
    • nurture:born blank,we are based on environment-experiance
  3. different types of variables in an experiment?
    independent, dependent, control, extraneous
  4. what is the independent variable?
    • manipulated by the researcher
    • control group-plecebo
  5. what is the dependent veriable?
    the response that is measured.
  6. what is the confounding veriable?
    an extraneous variable
  7. what is the experimenter-expectancy effect?
    • how the research may uncociously influence participants
    • self-fulfiling phrophecy-robert roshental
    • blind studies
  8. historical types of psychology
    • structuralism-Best way to understand thought and behavior:
    • ›Break down experience into its parts-
    • Introspection:
    • Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis:
    • Unconscious mind is the
    • most powerful force behind thought and behavior
    • Carl Jung:
    • Universal unconscious - Set
    • of shared symbols and beliefs that exist both within and outside the person, no
    • matter what culture he or she belongs to
  9. historical types of psychology
    • functionalism-
    • žIt was better to look at WHY the mind works the way it
    • does than to describe its parts

    • žInfluenced by Darwin’s
    • theory of natural selection

    ØAdvocated by

    William James

    • ØAlso used
    • introspection
  10. historical types of psychology
    • behaviorism-
    • žPsychology
    • can be a true science, only if it examines observable behavior, not
    • ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives

    • žJohn Watson (1878-1958)
    • Challenged the use of
    • introspection
    • Little Albert

    • žB.F.
    • Skinner (1904-1990)
    • Skinner
    • box
  11. fields of psychology
    neuroscience-how body and brain create reality
  12. fields of psychology

    • How natural selection perpetuates
    • one’s genes
  13. fields of psychology

    • How behavior comes from unconscious
    • drives and conflicts
  14. fields of psychology
    behavioral-how we learn observable responses
  15. fields of psychology

    • How we encode, process, store, and
    • retrieve information
  16. fields of psychology

    How we grow and change throughout the lifespan

    Behavioral genetics-

    • How much our genes and environments
    • influence our individual differences

    Psycho endocrine-

    How our hormones influence behavior


    • How do you treat someone with mental, emotional, or
    • behavior disorders


    How our lifestyle influences physical health and illness


    How students learn and effectiveness of teaching


    • How real or
    • imagined presence of others influence thought, feelings, and behavior


    How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

    • personality-How our unique and
    • enduring set of behaviors, feelings,
    • thoughts, and motives
    • characterize us

    • industrial/organizational- How psychological
    • concepts apply to work settings and problems

    • sports-How to increase
    • athletic performance and prohibit
    • injuries

    • forensics-How psychology,
    • law, and criminal justice blend together
  17. what is critical thinking?
    • purposeful
    • reflective judgment concerning what to believe or what to do
  18. limits of intuition, common sense, and assumptions
    overconfidence bias-in which someone's subjective confidence in their judgments is reliably greater than their objective accuracy

    hindsight bias-The tendency to believe, after learning of an outcome, that one could have foreseen it
  19. hypothesis v theory
    hypothesis-Explanation of a phenomenon based on what is observed, but NOT proven. Could be supported or refuted.

    • Theory - Explanation of a set of related
    • observations or events based upon supported hypotheses and verified multiple times.

    • Law - A statement of fact describing an
    • action or set of actions. It is simple, true, universal, and
    • absolute.
  20. current ethical procedures?
    • in humans-
    • Informed consent
    • Respect for persons
    • Beneficence
    • Debriefing
    • Institutional review boards
    • (IRBs)
    • Privacy and confidentiality
    • Justice

    • in animals-
    • More controversial than human research
    • Can do surgeries and sacrifices
    • Strict laws and standards govern treatment
    • Humane treatment (e.g.Clean housing, minimal pain, environment free of illness)
    • Each institution has their
    • own
    • Animal IRB for legal and
    • ethical safeguards
  21. biases in psychological research?
    • Social Desirability Bias
    • The tendency toward favorable self-presentation
    • that could lead to inaccurate self-reports
  22. what are epigenetics?
    • —Environmental
    • events influence how and when genes are activated or deactivated

    • —Does not
    • change DNA

    • —Stress,
    • diet, behavior, toxins and other factors activate chemical switches that
    • regulate gene expression.
  23. psychologist vs psychiatrist
    psychologist- study

    psychiatrist- doctor/can prescribe medicine
  24. neurotransmitters
    acetylcholine-slows ANS activity, eating, drinking, neuromuscular junction; involved in learning, memory, sleeping, and dreaming

    dopamine-plays an improtant role in arousal, mood(especially positive mood) oversupply correlates with schizophrenia, voluntary muscle control

    epinephrine-increases ANS activity, fight-or-flight response

    norepinephrine-affects CNS activity; plays role in increasing alertness, attention

    serotonin-plays role in mood, sleep, eating, temperature regulation, undersupply relates to anxiety and depression

    gaba-is the major inhibitory nurotransmitter in the brain; slows CNS function; correlates with anxiety and intoxication

    glutamate-is the most common excitatory nurotransmitter in the brain; involved in learning and memory, may be involved in schzichoprenia
  25. sensation
    Physical process

    • Stimulation of our sense organs by features of the outer
    • world
  26. top down vs bottom - up processing
    • bottom up-A process of building a perceptual experience from
    • smaller pieces

    • top down-Perception of the
    • whole guides perception of smaller elemental features
  27. what is attention?
    • Limited capacity to process information that is under
    • conscious control.
  28. two types of attention
    • selective-
    • Focus on specific features in the environment while
    • ignoring others

    •Cocktail party effect

    •Inattentional blindness

    •Perceptual load model

    •Mind wandering vs. daydreaming


    • žAbility to maintain focused awareness on a target or
    • idea

    •Continuous Performance Test (CPT)
  29. when the first psych lab was opened?
  30. types of research studies
    • descriptive studies-
    • The researcher defines a problem and variable of
    • interest but makes no prediction and does not control or manipulate anything
    • Case study
    • Naturalistic observation
    • Interview and survey

    correlational studies-

    • —Measure two or more variables and their relationship to
    • one another, not designed to show causation
    • Co-Relate
    • Positive
    • Negative
    • Spurious

    • Correlation does
    • not equal
    • causation!

    • experimental studies-
    • Independent variable
    • Manipulated by the
    • researcher
    • Control group -Placebo

    Dependent variable

    • The response that is
    • measured

    • Confounding variable
    • An extraneous
    • variable

    • Experimenter-expectancy effect
    • How the research may
    • unconsciously influence participants
    • Self-fulfilling
    • Prophecy - Robert Rosenthal
    • Blind studies

    • Quasi-Experimental
    • Design-

    • —Method similar to an experimental design except that it
    • makes use of naturally occurring groups rather than randomly assigning subjects
    • to groups

    • Meta Analysis-
    • Research technique for
    • combining all research results on one question and drawing a conclusion
    • Effect size
    • Standardized statistic
  31. parts of a nuron
    Image Upload 1
  32. action potential
    Image Upload 2
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