ch 34

  1. preparation for entrance/exit into isolations room
    • entrance
    • hand hygiene
    • gown
    • mask or respirator
    • eyewear or goggles
    • gloves
    • exit
    • gloves
    • mask
    • eyewear or goggles
    • gown
    • hand hygiene
  2. tier two protective environment
    • allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants
    • private room
    • positive pressure room with 12 or more exchanges per hour
    • HEPA filtration for incoming air
    • respirator mask
    • gloves
    • gowns
  3. tier two contact precautions
    • direct or environmental contact
    • colonization or infection with multidrug resistant organism (MDRO) such as VRE and MRSA
    • clostridum difficile, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), draining wounds where secretions are not contained, scabies
    • private room or cohort clients
    • gloves
    • gowns
  4. tier two droplet precautions
    • droplets > 5mcg
    • being within 3ft of client
    • diptheria, rubella, streptococcal pharyngitis, pneumonia, scarlet fever (children), pertusis, mumps, sepsis, pneumonic plague
    • private room or cohort clients
    • mask or respirator
  5. tier two airborne precautions
    • droplet nuclei < 5mcg
    • measles, chickenpox, TB
    • private room
    • neg. pressure airflow of at least 6-12 air exchanges per hour via HEPA filtration
    • mask or respiratory protection device
  6. isolation precautions
    • tier one- standard/universal precautions
    • tier two- transmission categories( airborne, droplet, contact, protective environment)
    • psychological implications
    • environment
    • equipment
    • speciment collection
    • bagging of trash and linen
    • transportation
  7. nursing diagnostic process (infection risk)
    • check results of lab tests (low WBC count )
    • review current meds (immunosuppressants)
    • identify potential sites of infection (eg. IV, foley)
  8. labs tests for infection
    • WBC (count)- 5000- 10,000/mm3; above range indicates infectious process
    • erythrocyte sedimentation rate-(ESR, E sed rate)- up to 15mm/hr for men and 20mm/hr for women, above range indicates inflammatory or infectious process
    • iron levels- 60-90g/100ml, decreased in chronic infection
    • cultures of urine and blood
  9. exudates
    • fluid and cells that are discharged from cells or blood vessles (eg. pus, serum)
    • serous- clear, like plasma
    • sanguineous- containing RBC's
    • purulent- containg WBC's and bacteria (usually pus and smell. w/ fever)
  10. course of infection (stages)
    • incubation period- interval between entrance of a pathogen into the body and appearance of first symptoms
    • prodromal stage-interval from non-specific to more specific symptoms
    • illness- manifestation of s/s specific to the type of infection
    • convalescence- interval when acute symptoms disappear to full recovery to previous state
  11. modes of transmission
    • direct contact
    • indirect contact
    • droplet
    • airborne
    • vehicles
    • vector- eg ticks
  12. portals of exit/entry
    • skin and mucous membranes
    • respiratory tract
    • urinary tract
    • GI tract
    • reproductive tract
    • blood
  13. chain of infection
    • infectious agent (pathogen)
    • reservoir (source for pathogen growth)
    • poratal of exit from the reservoir
    • mode of transmission
    • portal of entry to a host
    • susceptible host
Card Set
ch 34
infection prevention and control