What factors should you consider when selecting equipment?
- Environmental conditions - weather, playing surface
- Personal factors - Strength, injuries / conditions, age
- Sport - requirements and regulations
What adjustments would you make to equipment selection to suit conditions?
- Shoes - herringbone soles for tennis, studs v spikes
- Stick / racquet - strings, net, length, weight
- Ball - leather v synthetic, compression
What is the principle of Inertia?
- “Objects keep doing what they are doing”
- Newton's first law
Investigating why or how a muscle has produced a force would be which type of analysis?
- Describing the quality of the movement.
Determining the direction of a force and measuring it's magnitude is which type of analysis?
Quantitative - using numbers to quantify it.
“Forces are not required to keep something moving, forces are required to stop it”
What principle is this?
- Newton's first law
- Principle of inertia
What is drag?
Air resistance or fluid resistance
What is laminar flow?
Streamlined flow - Fluids hitting a smooth surface, flow is smooth and regular, always moving at the same speed and in the same direction
What is turbulent flow?
The fluid is subject to continual changes in speed and direction, when a stream flows over shoals of rocks, or an uneven surface.
Which pronciple is this?
"The total energy in a steady flowing fluid system is a constant along the flow path. An increase in the fluid’s speed must therefore be matched by a decrease in its pressure.”
Which Principle is this?
“The force perpendicular to the forward motion on a spinning object moving through a fluid or gas, as that responsible for the curve on a curve ball.”
The Magnus Effect
How does back spin work against gravity and create lift?
- The Magnus Effect
- Lift force acting under the ball due to the spin and resulting air flow (bernoulli's principle) which pushes the ball up.
Explain the trade off between stability and mobility?
A continuum between high stability and high mobility. The most appropriate technique for controlling your body depends on where the goal of the movement falls on the stability–mobility continuum
"Stability and mobility are inversely related"
Explain this statement.
When on is high the other one is low.
How can you adjust technique to increase stability?
- Bend legs - move centre ofgravity closer to the ground
- Increase base of support
- Distribute weight evenly
What principle is this?
"Acceleration imparted to a body by a force acting on it varies directly to the
force and inversely to the mass of the body, and is in the
direction of the applied force"
Mewton's second law. Acceleration
Explain the impact of force and time.
- 1.Impulse - if force is exerted for longer - greater velocity can be acheived
- 2. Muscle fibre recruitment - weaker, slower fibres will be recrutied first, the longer force is required the more fibres are recruited and larger stronger fibres are recruited.
Learn these labels on this diagram
Is skeletal muscle striated, smooth or cardiac?
Striated. Named due to it's striped appearance
What gives skeletal muscle its striped appearance?
The bands in the sarcomere
What is the H zone in the sarcomere?
The central part of the A band in the sarcomere; characterized by the presence of myosin filaments.
What pulls the sarcomere into full contraction?
The cross-bridges between the myosin and actin filaments pull them towards one another
What is the Force - velocity relationship?
The force of fully activated muscle varies with velocity. The force the muscle can create decreases with increasing velocity of shortening (concentric actions), while the force the muscle can resist increases with increasing velocity of lengthening (eccentric actions).
What is the force length relationship?
Peak muscle force can be generated when there are the most cross-bridges, Potential active muscle tension decreases for shorter or longer muscle lengths because fewer cross-bridges are available for binding
What is the force time relationship?
The delay in the development of muscle tension. Can be expressed as the time from the electric signal to the rise or peak in muscle tension.
How can biomechanical analysis be conducted?
- Qualitative - Preparation, observation, evaluation, intervention
- Quantitative - measuring velocities, angles, accuracy
What methods of observation cold be used by coaches?
- planes of observation (side, front)
What are the five rules of goal setting?
- Write the goals down
- Make an action plan
How can you use a model or framework to explain how to increase exercise adherence?
- Transtheoretical model - work through stages
- Theory of planned behaviour - work on attitude, norm and perceived control
Which nutritional interventions are used in endurance events?
- Carbohydrate Drinks, Gels and Energy Bars During Events
- Carboloading before events
How can well timed and coordinated movement generate more force?
- segmental interaction, kinematic chain
- conservation of momentum
Identify two interventions that aim to improve wellbeing.
- Find thirty
- Heart Moves
What is Carron's model of group cohesion?
4 factors that influence the cohesion of the team - environmental, personal, team and leadership factors.
Define Group Cohesion.
- Task cohesion – common commitment to the task or goals (grand final), interactions of team members to attain goal. Most important for interactive games (team working together, success by the efforts to perform skill for team)
- Social cohesion – relationships and interactions with other members (do they like each other?)