Chpt 1-6 A & P

  1. Anatomy
    The study of body structure
  2. Physiology
    Study of how the body functions
  3. Disease
    anything that upsets the normal structure or workings of the body
  4. cell
    the basic unit of all life
  5. tissue
    specialized group of cells
  6. Metabolism
    • all the life sustaining reactions that occur whithin the body
    • (all chemical reactions needed to sustain life)
  7. catabolism
    breaking down into simpler compounds
  8. anabolism
    building phase of metabolism
  9. negative feedback
    maintains homeostasis by reversing upward or downward trends in body conditions
  10. dorsal cavity contains what body cavities?
    crainial and spinal cord
  11. Chemistry
    science that deals with the composition and properties of matter
  12. matter
    anything that takes up space
  13. elements
    substances that make up all matter
  14. atomic number
    equal to the number protons
  15. valence
    the number of electrons lost or gained in chemical reactions
  16. molecule
    two or more atoms united on the basis of their electron structures
  17. compounds
    substances composed of two or more different elements
  18. the universal solvent
  19. solution
    when one substance is dissolved in another
  20. solvent
    a dissolving substance
  21. solute
    the substance being dissolved
  22. suspension
    solute material is not dissolved and will settle out
  23. colloids
    molecules do not dissolve but remain evenly distributed in the suspending material
  24. ionic bond
    when electrons are tranferred from one atom to another
  25. ion
    an atom or group of atoms with a positive or negative charge
  26. cation
    any ion that is positively charged
  27. anion
    any negatively charged ion
  28. electrolytes
    compounds formed by ionic bonds that release ions when they are in solution
  29. covalent bond
    a sharing of electrons between the atoms in a molecule
  30. acid
    a chemical substance capable of donating a hydrogen ion
  31. base
    a chemical substance that can accept a hydrogen ion
  32. acidity
    a greater concentration of hydrogen ions
  33. normal ph
    • 7.35 to 7.45
    • acid to base
  34. phospholipids
    complex lipids containing phosphorus
  35. cholesterol
  36. steroid
    lipid that contain rings of carbon atoms
  37. proteins
    • the body's structural materials
    • amino acids
  38. enzymes
    protiens that are essential for metabolism (organic catalysts)
  39. denaturation
    the alteration of any protien so that it can no longer function
  40. catalysts
    enzymes which increase the speed of chemical reactions
  41. -ase
    means enzymes
  42. de-
  43. sacchar/o
  44. polar
    unequal sharing of electrons
  45. nonpolar
    equal sharing of electrons
  46. pH scale
    • measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
    • below 7 is acidic
    • above 7 is alkaline
  47. cell
    the basic unit of all life
  48. cytology
    the study of cells
  49. stains
    special dyes used to color cells and tissues
  50. phospholipids
    lipids that contain phosphorus
  51. plasma membrane
    phospholipid bilayer containing carbohydrates, protiens, colesterol
  52. microvilli
    short extentions of the cell membrane
  53. cytoplasm
    colloidal suspension inside the cell
  54. cytosol
    fluid portion of cytoplasm (liquid protein)
  55. mitochondria
    • convert energy from nutrients to ATP
    • powerplant
  56. golgi apparatus
    layers of membranes, prepares compounds for transport to other parts of the cell or out of the cell
  57. lysosomes
    digest substances whithin the cell
  58. peroxisomes
    breakdown of harmful substances
  59. vesicles
    store materials and move materials into or out of the cell in bulk
  60. cillia
    hairlike projections that move the fluids around the cell
  61. channels
    pores in the membrane that allow specific substances to enter or leave. Certain ions travel thru channels in the membrane.
  62. phagocytes
    cells that engulf bacteria and then use lysosomes to destroy them.
  63. autolysis
    self destruction
  64. chromosomes
    • made up of DNA
    • 46 chromosomes (22 pairs and 2 sex)
  65. diffusion
    the movement of particles from a high concentraion to a lower concentration until the equilibrium
  66. osmosis
    • the movement of particles from a lower concentration to a higher concenration
    • (diffusion of water thru a semi-permeable membrane)
    • (water follows salt)
  67. filtration
    passage of water and dissolved materials thru a membrane as a result of a mechanical (pushing) force on one side.
  68. facillitated diffusion
    movement of materials across the membrane along the concentration gradient using a transporter to speed the process
  69. active transport
    • costs ATP to move materials against the natural flow. requires proteins in the plama membrane to act as transporters.
    • (against the concentration)
  70. isotonic
    • solutions with concentrations equal to the concentration of the cytoplasm
    • (normal saline and 5% glucose)
  71. hypotonic
    less concentrated
  72. hypertonic
    more concentrated
  73. hemolysis
    red blood cell draws in water and bursts
  74. crenation
    when a cell loses water and shrinks
  75. mutation
    alteration of the genes
  76. -some
  77. chrom/o
  78. lys/o
  79. meta
  80. tell/o-
  81. pin/o
    to drink
  82. iso-
    same or equal
  83. carcin/o
  84. -gen
    agent that produces
  85. characteristics of life
    organization, metabolism, responsiveness, homestasis, growth, reproduction
  86. meiosis
    forms the sex cells (divides the chromosome number in half)
  87. mitosis
    division of somatic cells
  88. stages of mitosis
    • a pro met A telephone
    • prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
    • prophase- the doubled strands of DNA return to spiral organization and the 2 centrioles move toward opposite ends of the cell
    • metaphase- chromosomes line up at the center
    • anaphase-centomere splits and duplicated chromosomes move to the ends
    • telophase- a membrane appears around each group of seperated chromosomes forming 2 nuclei
  89. angi/o
  90. -blast
    immature cell, early stage of cell
  91. mucus
    secretions produced by epithelial tissues
  92. collagen
    a flexible white protein
  93. irregular dense connective tissue
    fibrous membranes that cover various organs
  94. regular dense connective tissue
    tendons and ligaments
  95. tendons
    connect muscles to bones
  96. ligaments
    connect bones to other bones
  97. genome
    all the different genes on all the chromosomes collectively
  98. transporters
    shuttle substances such as glucose across the membrane
  99. receptors
    allow for attachment of substances, such as hormones, to the membrane
  100. enzymes
    participate in reactions at the surface of the membrane, break things down
  101. linkers
    give structure to the membrane and attach cells to other cells
  102. cell identity markers
    proteins unique to a person's cells
  103. smooth ER
    involved with the synthesis of lipids
  104. rough ER
    ER with ribosomes attached
  105. endoplasmic reticulum
    a network of membranes located between the nuclear membrane and the plasma membrane
  106. epithelial tissue
    covers, surfaces, lines cavities,and forms glands
  107. transitional epithelium
    capable of great expansion, but returns to it's original form
  108. matrix
    nonliving material between cells containing varying amounts of water, fibers, and hard minerals
  109. neuroglia
    nonconducting support cells of the nervous system
  110. serous membranes
    line the walls of body cavities and are folded back onto the surface of internal organs
  111. mucous membranes
    line tubes and other spaces that are open to the outside of the body
  112. cutaneous membrane
    commonly known as the skin
  113. mesothelium
    • the thin epithelium of serous membranes that is smooth and glistening
    • sometimes referred to as the serosa
  114. the pleurae
    line the thorasic cavity and cover each lung
  115. serous pericardium
    forms part of a sac that encloses the heart
  116. peritoneum
    the largest serous membrane. it lines the walls of the abdominal cavity, covers the abdominal organs, and forms supporting and protective structures within the abdomin
  117. parietal layer
    attached to the wall of a cavity or sac
  118. visceral layer
    attached to an organ
  119. mucosa
    the mucous membrane of an organ
  120. synovial membranes
    thin connective tissue membranes that line the joint cavities
  121. meninges
    several membranous layers covering the brain and the spinal
  122. fascia
    referres to fiberous bands that support organs and hold them in place
  123. fiberous pericardium
    forms the cavity that encloses the heart
  124. periosteum
    the membrane surrounding a bone
  125. perichondrium
    the membrane around cartilage
  126. neoplasm
    any abnormal growth of cells
  127. be
  128. benign
    tumor confined to a local area and does not spread
  129. papilloma
    a tumor that grows in epithelium as a projecting mass
  130. lipoma
    tumor originating in fatty tissue
  131. nevus
    a small skin tumor that can appear in a variety of tissues (usually harmless)
  132. carcinoma
    cancer originating in epithelium
  133. sarcoma
    cancers of connective tissue
  134. disease
    abnormality of the structure or function of a part, organ, or system
  135. predisposing causes of disease
    age, gender, heredity, living conditions and habits, emotional disturbance, physical, and chemical damage, and preexisting illness
  136. pathophysiology
    combined study of the relationship oa disease's pathologic and physiologic aspects
  137. etiology
    the study of the cause of a disease
  138. acute
    relativlely servere but usually lasting a short time
  139. chronic
    less severe but likely to be continuous or recurring for long periods
  140. subacute
    between acute and chronic
  141. idiopathic
    without known cause
  142. iatrogenic disease
    ressults from the adverse effects of treatment
  143. epidemiology
    study of diseases in populations
  144. incidence
    the number of new desease cases in a particular population during a specific time period
  145. prevalence
    the overall frequency of a disease in a given group
  146. mortality rate
    the percentage of the population that dies from a given disease whithin a given time period
  147. epidemic
    many people within a given region acquire a certain disease at the same time
  148. endemic
    a given disease is found to a lesser extent but continuously in a particular region
  149. pandemic
    a disease that is prevalent throughout an entire country or continent, or the whole world
  150. diagnosis
    reaching a conclusion as to the nature or identity of the illness
  151. symptoms
    subjective disease conditions noted by the patient (subject)
  152. sign
    objective manifestions that can be observed. (they can be measured)
  153. syndrome
    a characteristic group of symptoms and signs that accompanies a disease
  154. prognosis
    a prediction of a probable outcome of a disease
  155. therapy
    prescribed course of treatment
  156. microorganisms
    a tiny living thing to be seen by the naked eye
  157. pathogenic
    microorganisms that cause illness or disease
  158. vector
    an insect or other animal that transmits a disease-causing organism from one host to another
  159. bacteria
    primitive single cell organisms
  160. virusus
    not a living cell that can multiply only whithin living cell
  161. fungi
    yeast and molds
  162. protozoa
    single cell animals
  163. algae
    very simple multi-cellular or single cell aquatic plants
  164. normal flora
    microorganisms that live on or in the body
  165. anaerobic
    bacteria that can grow in absence of oxygen
  166. aerobic
    bacteria that requires oxygen
  167. facultative anaerobics
    anaerobes that will use oxygen if it is present are able to grow whithout oxygen
  168. endospores
    • bacteria that produce resistant forms that can tolerate long periods of dyness or other adverse conditions
    • (all endospore-forming bacteria are bacilli)
  169. pili
    help bacteria to glide along solid surfaces, can also help anchor bacteria to surfaces and to attach bacteria to each other for exchange of genetic information
  170. conjugation
    bacteria attaching to each other for exchange of genetic information
  171. cocci
    round cells in characteristic arrangements
  172. diplococci
    • cells that are arranged in pairs; di- means two
    • (gonorrhea, and meningitis)
  173. streptococci
    • cells that are in chains: strept- means chain
    • (pnuemonia)
  174. staphylococci
    • cells arranged in clusters; staphylo- means cluster
    • (pnuemonia)
  175. bacilli
    • straight slender rods
    • responsible for diphtheria, tetanus, tuberculosus
  176. vibrios
    • short rods with a slight curvature like a comma
    • (cholera)
  177. spirilla
    long wavelike cells resembling a corkscrew
  178. spirochetes
    • similar to spirilla but are capable of waving and twisting motion
    • (syphilis)
  179. name the 3 shapes of bacteria
    • round
    • rod
    • curved
  180. prions
    infectious particle composed solely of protein
  181. viroids
    composed of rna alone with no protein coat
  182. micotic
    • diseases caused by fungi
    • ie. athletes foot, and ring worm
  183. candida
    normal inhabitant of the mouth and digestive tract that may produce skin lesions, an oral infection called thrush, digestive upset, or inflamation of the vaginal tract(vaginitis)
  184. amoeba
    an irregular mass of cytoplasm that propels itself by extending part of itself and then flowing into the extension
  185. sporozoa
    cannot propel themselves, unable to grow outside of a host
  186. helminths
    • parasites with human hosts
    • (parasitic worms)
  187. iscaris
    rounds worms---one of the most common infestations----affects the lungs or intestines. Long white/yellow worm pointed at both ends.
  188. trichina
    small round worm found in pork and wild game
  189. flukes
    leaf shaped flat worms
  190. sepsis
    refers to the presence of pathogenic organismsor their toxins in the blood or tissue
  191. asepsis
    condition in which no pathogens are present
  192. antibiotic
    a substance produced by living cells that has the power to kill or arrest the growth of bacteria
  193. nosocomial
    hospital accquired infections
  194. grams stain
    most commonly used stain. negative is red; positive is bluish purple
  195. idio-
    • self, seperate, distinct
    • ie. self originating (unknown cause)
  196. septic
    poison, rot, decay
  197. lesion
    any wound or local damage to tissue
  198. erythema
    redness of the skin
  199. macule
    • a spot that is neither raise nor depressed,
    • ie. measles or freckles
  200. papule
    a firm raised area, as in some stages of chicken pox
  201. vesicle
    a blister or small fluid filled sac as seen in chicken pox or shingles eruptions
  202. pustule
    a vesicle filled with pus
  203. excoriation
    a scratch into the skin
  204. laceration
    a rough, jagged wound made by tearing of the skin
  205. ulcer
    a sore associated with disintegration and death of tissue
  206. fissure
    a crack in the skin
  207. cicatrix
    • scar
    • (sick of trix)
  208. keloids
    excess collagen producing tumorlike masses or sharply raised areas on the skin surface
  209. dermatosis
    a general term referring to any skin disease
  210. dermatitis
    inflamation of the skin
  211. eczema
    inflamation characterized by intense itching and skin inflamation
  212. psoriasis
    a chronic overgrowth of the epidermis leading to large, sharply outlined, red, flat areas covered with silvery scales
  213. acne
    a disease of the sebacceous glands connected with hair follicles
  214. impetigo
    acute contagious disease of staphylococcal or streptoccal origin
  215. herpes simplex virus
    • causes the formation of watery vesicles
    • type I- causes lesions around the nose and mouth
    • type II- responsible for genital infections
  216. shingles(herpes zoster)
    caused by the same virus that causes chicken pox.
  217. verruca
    • a small tumor caused by a virus of the human papillomavirus (hpv)
    • means a wart
  218. alopecia
  219. urticaria
  220. pemphigus
    • condition characterized by the formation of blisters in the skin and mucos membranes by autoimmune reactions
    • fatal if not treated!
  221. lupus erythematosus
    a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune deasea of connective tissue
  222. scleroderma
    desease of unknown that involves over production of colagen with thickening and tightening of the skin
  223. pressure ulcers
    decubitus ulcer or bed sore which is a skin lesions that appears where the body rests on skin that covers boney projections
  224. pil/o
  225. sebaceous
    oil glands
  226. sudoriferous
    • sweat glands
    • eccrin, and apocrine
  227. 5 functions of the skin
    • protection against infection
    • protection against dehydration
    • regulation of body temperature
    • sensory information
    • vitamin D
    • absorption, excretion
Card Set
Chpt 1-6 A & P
terms and descriptions