GEOL 108

  1. What is the origin of cetaceans?
  2. Are cetaceans fish or mammals?
  3. How long ago did Flipper's ancestors return to the oceans from land?
    About 55 million years ago.
  4. What is the Gulf Stream?
    It transports warm water from the tropics north and warms up the ocean in western Europe.
  5. What is the photic zone?
    Where the sunlight is.
  6. What happens in the photic zone?
  7. What is photosynthesis?
    The process of plants using sunlight, CO2, and H2O into food.
  8. What are the main features on the seafloor?
    Continental Shelf, Continental Slope, Continental Rise, and Abyssal Plain.
  9. How deep is the continental shelf?
    0 to 200 Meters
  10. How deep is the oceans abyssal plain?
    4-5 KM deep
  11. How deep is the ocean spreading centers?
    About 13,000 Ft.
  12. What is a food web?
    Goes from the the high sharks down showing what each eat, down to plants that do photosynthesis.
  13. What does Flipper eat?
    Squid, Small fish, Crustaceans.
  14. What are Flippers enemies?
    Sharks, Killer, Whales (orca), Humans-Fishing and pollution
  15. What is a nutrient?
    Chemicals needed for biological activity.
  16. What is one way that nutrient cycling works in the oceans?
    Rivers bring in dissolved solids from land.

    Seawater cycled through seafloor in places.

    Dead critters sink to bottom, get recycled.
  17. How do crude oil and natural gas form?
    Oil changes at 60 degrees C depth of 2k about a mile. Comes from organic matter.
  18. What causes the high fluid pressures in sediment that can result in an oil well blowout like the Deepwater Horizon?
    Water in buried muds becomes highly-pressured as more sediment (mud, sand) is deposited on top of them.
  19. How can those pressures be counteracted so the well doesn't blow out?
    By balancing the pressures with "drilling mud"
  20. What is a tsunami?
    A destructive sea wave caused by earthquake or volcano.
  21. What causes tsunamis?
    Earthquakes or Volcanoes.
  22. Define/draw a diagram showing the earth's crust, mantle, core; also lithosphere, asthensophere, mesophere.
    • Crust- Outermost layer
    • Mantle-the middle layer that is solid rock
    • Core-innermost layer, has liquid iron and solid iron.
    • Lithosphere-a strong layer, the outermost layer.
    • Asthensophere- A weak layer the middle layer
    • Mesophere- the inner layer it is strong.
  23. What are igneous rocks?
    Rocks formed from molten magma or lava.
  24. Describe the two types of Earth's crust, showing where they are found on Earth.
    Continental crust found high, Oceanic crust is lower.
  25. What causes earthquakes?
    Displacement of the earths plates.
  26. What is a fault?
    Planar break in rock, across which one side has moved relative to the other side.
  27. What is an epicenter?
    The place on earth (land) not underground that the earthquake hit.
  28. Divergent Boundaries
    1) Broad uplift, 2) Rift valley-non marine sediments, lava flows 3) beginning sea floor spreading. 4) ocean basin.

    Oceanic on both sides. Spreading apart
  29. Spreading Centers
    How new oceanic crust forms. The plates are spreading apart letting magma up, then it is released into the ocean and cools to form new crust.
  30. Convergent Boundaries
    Ocean and continental crust, oceanic crust sinks back into mantle. Forms mountains, causes biggest earthquakes, causes bigger explosions.
  31. Transform
    When two continental crusts slide past each other.
  32. How and why does the age of the ocean change with distance from the spreading center?
    The spreading center is moving outwards in both directions, but creating new crust as you move in.
  33. How and why does the depth of the ocean chance with distance from the spreading center?
    because the new crust is forming on top of the old crust making it build up. into like a hill.
  34. What is a hotspot volcano? Example?
    fixed column of hot rock ascending from base of mantle.

  35. How do coral atolls form?
    Grows around a volcano, as the volcano moves away from hot spot it cools and sinks, and leaves the coral.
  36. What is sediment?
    Particles, deposited everywhere in the ocean basins.
  37. What is sedimentary rock?
    A rock that formed on earths surface from sediments.
  38. What are the two categories of sediment/sedimentary rock?
    Clastic and Chemical
  39. What are neritic sediments?
    • Near shore
    • A) river delta
    • B) Beach
    • C) Shelf
    • D) Turbidites
    • E) Glacial
  40. What are Pelagic sediments?
    Abyssal Clay
Card Set
GEOL 108