Anatomy/Phys - Ch. 10

  1. What does the acronym GTPAL stand for?
    • Gravida
    • Term
    • Preterm
    • Abortion
    • Living Children
  2. What is the earliest biologic marker for pregnancy?
    Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
  3. When performing a urine pregnancy test, when is the best time to do so?
    In the morning.

    (hCG levels are nearly the same as serum level.)
  4. What is the most popular method of testing?
    Urine testing with ELISA
  5. What kind of medications can cause false positive results in a pregnancy test?
    Anticonvulsants and Tranquilizers
  6. What kind of medications can cause false negative results in a pregnancy test?
    Diuretics and Promethazine
  7. What are the 3 categories of the signs and symptoms of pregnancy?

    • Presumptive - changes felt by the woman
    • EX: Amenorrhea, fatigue, breast changes, N&V

    • Probable - changes observed by the examiner
    • EX: Hegar sign, ballottement, pregnancy test

    • Positive - signs attributed only to the presence of the fetus
    • EX: Hearing fetal heart tones, visualizing the fetus, palpating fetal movements
  8. What is Hegar sign?
    Softening and compressing of the lower uterine segment at 6 weeks
  9. Passive movement of the unengaged fetus is called?
  10. What is Chadwick's sign?
    Increased vascularity of the vagina resulting in a violet-bluish color by the 6th week
  11. Why do vaginal secretions become more acidic during pregnancy?
    Lactic acid production increases
  12. When can you palpate the fundus at the umbilical level?
    20 weeks
  13. What are the 3 parts that move the pelvis?
    • Sacroiliac joint
    • Coccyx
    • Symphyseal joint
  14. What are the 2 main pregnancy hormones?
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
  15. What do the montgomery tubercles do for the breasts?
    Produce lubrication for the nipple

    (esp. for breastfeeding)
  16. Breasts

    What hormone stimulates growth?
    They grow rapidly until how many weeks gestation?

    20 weeks
  17. How is milk production made in breasts?
    Estrogen and progesterone drop after the delivery of the placenta

    Causing prolactin levels to increase and produce milk
  18. What ABG readings increase or decrease in pregnancy?

    What is the acid-base balance called?
    • PCO2 - decrease
    • HCO3 - decrease
    • pH - increase

    Respiratory alkalosis compensated by metabolic acidosis
  19. Nose bleeds, gingival hyperplasia, labial edema and nasal congestion are caused by?
    Increased vascularity of the mucous membrane

    (increased vascularity = increased sexual arousal)
  20. True or False

    It is common for a pregnant woman to complain of shortness of breath?

    The fetus is pushing on the diaphragm and oxygen consumption increases
  21. Why is the right side of the renal system dilated?
    Heavy uterus is displaced to the right by the sigmoid colon
  22. What is Goodell's sign?
    Softening of the cervical tip at the beginning of week 6
  23. System changes during pregnancy:


    Blood volume/output/heart size/pulse/circulation/clotting
    • Increased blood volume (RBC, WBC, Plt)
    • Increased cardiac output
    • Enlarged heart
    • Pulse increase by 15 beats
    • Decreased circulation
    • Increased clotting time
  24. System changes during pregnancy:


    O2/Chest expansion/diaphragm/upper tract/BMR
    • Increase O2
    • Increase chest expansion (estrogen relaxes ribs)
    • Displaced diaphragm
    • Vascular upper respiratory tract = epistaxis
    • BMR increases
  25. System changes during pregnancy:


    Structures/urine volume/GFR
    • Ureter/renal pelvis dilation
    • More urine held (may lead to UTI)
    • Increased GFR
    • Increase tubular resorption
    • Polydipsia
  26. System changes during pregnancy:


    • Hyperpigmentation
    • Darkened areolas
    • Linea nigra appear
    • Stretch marks
    • Angiomas
    • Gum hypertrophy
    • Nail growth
  27. System changes during pregnancy:


    Appetite/stomach pH and motility
    • Appetite fluctuates
    • Stomach hernias possibly
    • Acid reflux (progesteron decreases motility)
    • Decreased ulcers (estrogen decreases HCl)
    • Constipation
    • Distended gallbladder
  28. System changes during pregnancy:


    Glands size
    Enlarged gland
Card Set
Anatomy/Phys - Ch. 10
Ch. 10