1. Three main cell structures
    • plasma membrane
    • cytoplasm, including organelles
    • nucleus
  2. List of membranous cell structures
    • plasma membrane
    • endoplasmic reticulum(ER)
    • golgi apparatus
    • vesicles
    • lysosomes
    • proteasomes
    • peroxisomes
    • mitochondria
    • nucleus
  3. List of nonmembranous cell structures
    • ribosomes
    • proteasomes
    • cytoskeleton
    • centrosome
    • microvilli
    • cilia and flagella
    • nucleolus
  4. Plasma membrane
    serves as the boundary of the cell, maintains its integrity.
  5. endoplasmic reticulum
    consists of membranous-walled canals and flat curving sacs arranged in parallel rows. They move proteins through their networks
  6. golgi apparatus
    membranous organelle consisting of cisternae stacked on one another and located near the nucleus. It processes and packages protein molecules delivered from the ER by small vesicles.
  7. vesicles
    membranous bags that temporarily contain molecules for transport or later use.
  8. lysosomes
    they have membranous walls and are vesicles that have pinched off from the Golgi apparatus. They help the cell break down proteins that are not needed to get them out of the way.
  9. proteasomes
    • a nonmembranous hollow, cylindrical drum made up of protein subunits.
    • They are responsible for breaking down abnormal and misfolded proteins from the ER, as well as destroying normal regulatory proteins in the cytoplasm that are no longer needed.
  10. peroxisomes
    • are small membranous sacs-containing enzymes.
    • Their function is to detoxify harmful substances that may enter cells
  11. mitochondria
    • made up of microscopic sacs, wall composed of inner and outer membranes separated by fluid.
    • The mitochondrial enzymes catalyze series of oxidation reactions that provide about most of a cell’s energy supply (ATP).
  12. nucleus
    houses the genetic code DNA.
  13. ribosomes
    • they are membranous structure made of two tiny interlocking pieces a large and small subunit.
    • Function is protein synthesis
  14. cytoskeleton
    • acts as a framework to support the cell aqnd its organelles
    • functions in cell movement; forms cell extensions(microvilli, cilia, flagella)
  15. centrosome
    • the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) of the cell
    • includes 2 centrioles that assist in forming and organizing microtubules.
  16. microvilli
    tiny, fingerlike extensions that increase a cells absorptive surface area.
  17. cilia and flagella
    hairlike cell extensions that serve to move substances over the cell surface(cilia) or propel sperm cells(flagella)
  18. nucleolus
    part of the nucleus; plays an essential role in the formation of ribosomes. Contains RNA.
  19. cytoplasm
    the gel-like inside of a cell
  20. cytosol
    (intracellular fluid)
    the watery fluid inside in the cytoplasm
  21. hydrophilic
    water loving; the head or water soluble side of the phospholipid molecule.
  22. hydrophobic
    water fearing; tail end of the phospholipid molecule
  23. Rough ER
    ER with ribosomes attached. located closer to the nucleus
  24. Smooth ER
    • Smooth in apperance.
    • Transport Ca ions from the cytosol into the sacs of the ER, maintaining a low concentration of Ca in the cells interior.
  25. microfilaments
    smallest cell fibers, they are thin twisted strands of protein molecules. located in muscle cells.
  26. intermediate filaments
    slightly thicker twisted protein strands. located in the outer layer of skin.
  27. microtubules
    thickest of the cell fibers. made up of protein subunits arranged in a spiral fashion.
  28. List the 3 major cell fibers
    • microfilament
    • intermediate filament
    • microtubules
  29. Where is DNA found in the cell?
    the nucleus
  30. list important cell membrane functions
    • Plasma membrane serves as the boundary of the cell, maintaining its integrity
    • it controls what goes in and out of the cell
    • it contains proteins and carbohydrate chains that serve as identifying markers and receptor molecules.
  31. what is the prime regulator of nucleus function?
  32. difference between membranous and nonmembranous organelles?
    • The membranous organelles are the organelles that are specialized sacs or canals made of cell membrane.
    • The nonmembranous organelles are not made of membrane but are made of microscopic filaments or other nonmembranous materials
  33. Site for ATP production?
    the mitochondria
  34. composition of cell membrane?
    it is composed of a phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophilic/polar heads of the phospholipids facing outward and the hydrophobic/nonpolar tails facing inward.
  35. Nucleus and its main components?
    Nucleus, which contains DNA in the form of chromatins, has a central nucleolus which contains RNA and the nucleolus is suspended in the nucleoplasm.
  36. name 3 types of cell connections
    • desmosomes
    • gap junctions
    • tight junctions
  37. Desmosomes
    • anchored internally by intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton.
    • 2 kinds: spot and belt
    • spot resemble velcro
    • belt have desmosomes structure thtat completely encircle the cell
  38. Gap junctions
    • formed when membrane channels of adjacent plasma membranes adhere to each other.
    • ex. heart muscle cells.
  39. tight junctions
    • occur in cells that are joined near their apical surfaces by collars of tightly fused membrane.
    • ex. lining of the intestine
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Chapter 3 Review