AP Euro 2

  1. (1461-1498) - Italian-born navigator exploredthe coast of New
    England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claimin North
    John Cabot
  2. (1467?-1520) -Claimed Brazil for Portugal
    Pedro Cabral
  3. Big commercial center for importing and
    exporting commodities.
  4. (1487-1488) -Portuguese explorer. FirstEuropean to reach the
    southern tip of Africa.
    Bartholomew Diaz
  5. (1540?-1596)- English sea captain, robbed Spanish treasure ships, 'singed the king beard'
    involved in the fighting the Spanish armada (1588).
    Sir Francis Drake
  6. Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their
    own land to work as well.
  7. (1496?-1524) - Sailed from Portugal for India.
    Vasco da Gama
  8. (1394-1460) - Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of
    navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's
    colonial empire.
    Prince Henry the Navigator
  9. (1480?-1521)- Portuguese navigator. While trying to find a western route to Asia, he was
    killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522),
    thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
    Ferdinand Magellan
  10. A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the
    northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
    Northwest Passage
  11. (1552?-1618) - English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
    Sir Walter Raleigh
  12. (1493) -Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
    Treaty of Tordesillas
  13. (1485?-1528?) - Italian explorer of the Atlantic coast of North America.
    Giovanni de Verrazano
  14. (1585-1642)- Became President of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the French
    crown. Strengthened the absolute
    power of King Louis XIII.
    Cardinal Richelieu
  15. (r. 1610-1643) -Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the
    French state.
    Louis XIII
  16. (1648-53) - Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIV.
  17. (1602-1661) - Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in
    French government.
    Jules Mazarin
  18. "Sun King" (r. 1643-1715) -had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of
    absolutist power.
    Louis XIV
  19. (1619-1683) - An advisor to Louis XIV who proved himself a financial genius who
    managed the entire royal administration.
    Jean-Babtiste Colbert
  20. Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis XIV. France became the cultural center of the world.
    French Classicism
  21. (1594-1665) -French classical painter who painted the Rape of the Sabine Women, known as the
    greatest French painter of the 17th century.
    Nicholas Poussin
  22. (r.1689-1702) - Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious
    Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
    William of Orange
  23. (1713) -Ended Louis XIV’s attempts to gain military power and land, Marked the end of
    French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
    Peace of Utrecht
  24. (1651) -Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is
    ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit
    contract. Claimed only absolutism
    could save society from constant war in which life was “solitary, poor, nasty,
    brutish, and short.”
  25. (1573-1645) -Archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies
    on all churches. Insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it
    through the Court of High Commission.
    He was impeached in 1640, but found not guilty of treason.
    William Laud(e)
  26. (1599-1658) -Led the Roundheads. Thought he was
    chosen by God He ruled England as Lord Protector by using his New Model Army to
    control the government. Eventually
    he ruled as a military dictator.
    Oliver Cromwell
  27. (1660) -Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were
    restored, established Anglican Church, courts of law and local government.
    The Restoration
  28. (1632-1704) -Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes
    development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human
    Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.
    John Locke
  29. (1588-1679) -Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state.
    Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos.
    Thomas Hobbes
  30. (1689) - Stated no law could be suspended by the king; no taxes raised; no army maintained
    except by parliamentary consent. Established after The Glorious Revolution.
    Bill of Rights
  31. (1628) -Initiated by Sir Edward Coke it limited the power of Charles I of England. a)
    could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not
    imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.
    Petition of Rights
  32. (1740-1748) - European conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of
    the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and
    archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's
    daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
    War of Austrian Succession
  33. Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political
    reaction and militarism.
  34. (1713) -Issued by Charles VI of Austria to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the
    Pragmatic Sanction
  35. A large number of soldiers in Moscow who were primarily the palace guards.
  36. (1613-1917) - Russian royal family, started with Michael Romanov (1613) and lasted until 1917.
  37. (1620-1688) - First man who made modern Prussia by strengthening
    the army and centralizing the bureaucracy.
    Frederick William the Great Elector
  38. Land owning aristocracy in early Russia.
  39. Established by Peter the Great in Russia, they received land and control of the peasants.
  40. A former principality in west-central Russia. Centered on Moscow, it was founded c. 1280 and existed as a separate entity until the 16th century, when it was united with another principality to form the nucleus of the early Russian empire. The name was then used for the expanded territory.
  41. German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to
    Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (r. 1701-1713) the family's possessions were
    unified as the kingdom of Prussia.
Card Set
AP Euro 2
2nd set of words