People and Resources

  1. Coase theorum
    Neoclassical theorem holding that externalities can be most efficiently controlled through contracts and bargaining between parties, assuming the transaction costs are not too high.
  2. Demographic Transition Model
    Model of pop change that predicts a decline in pop death rates associated with modernization, followed by a decline in birth rates resulting from industrialization and urbanization; this creates a sigmoidal curve where pop growth increases rapidly and then levels off.
  3. Externality
    Spillover of a cost or benefit.
  4. Forest transition theory
    model that predicts a period of deforestation in a region during development, when the forest is a resource or land is cleared for ag, followed by a return of forests when the economy changes and pop outmigrates and/or becomes conservation oriented
  5. Game Theory
    A form of math used to model and predict people's behavior in strategic situations where people's choices are predicated on predicting the behavior of others.
  6. Green Revolution
    A suie of tech. innovations which were applied to ag in the 50s-80s and increased ag yields but with a concomitant rise in chemical inputs, water, and machinery.
  7. Greenwashing
    Exagerated or false marketing of a product good or service as environmentally friendly.
  8. Jevon's Paradox
    A technology that increases the efficiency of resource use actually increases, rather than decreases, the rate of consumption of that resource.
  9. Kuznet's Curve
    Income inequality will increase during economic development and decrease after reaching a state of overall affluence, this theory predicts that environmental impacts rise during development, only to fall after an economy matures.
  10. Market Response Model
    Model that predicts economic responses to scarcity of a resource will lead to increases in prices that will result either in decreased demand or increased supply, or both.
  11. Monopoly and Monopsony
    One seller-inflated pricing. One buyer-deflated pricing.
  12. Neo-Malthusians
    Present-day adherents to a position-established by Malthus in the 19th cent. that pop growth outstrips limited resources and presents the single greatest driver of environmental degredation and crisis.
  13. Political Ecology
    an approach to environmental issues that unites issues of ecology with a broadly defined political economy perspective.
  14. Prisoner's Dilema
    An allegorical description of a game-theoretical situation in which multiple individuals making decisions in pursuit of their own interest tend to create collective outcomes that are non-optimal for everyone.
  15. Reconciliation Ecology
    A science of imagining, creating, and sustaining habitats, productive environments, and biodiversity in places used, traveled, and inhabited by human beings.
  16. Animal Liberation
    Named after Pete Singer's 1975 book. A social movement that aims to free all animals for use by humans.
  17. Anthropocentric
    Human centered in consideration of right or wrong
  18. Conservation
    The management of a resource or system to sustain its productivity over time, typically associated with scientific management of collective goods.
  19. Deep Ecology
    A philosophy of environmental ethics that distances itself from "shallow" or mainstream environmentalism by arguing for a "deeper" or more truly ecologically-informed view of the world
  20. Libertarianism
    Wanting as little government influence as possible.
  21. Dominion Thesis
    Arising from the book of Genesis, this thesis states that humans are the pinnacle of creation, and humans are granted ethical free reign to use nature in any way deemed beneficial.
  22. Ecocentrism
    Ecological concerns should be central to decisions over right and wrong, above humans.
  23. Ecology
    The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and the habitat or ecosystem they live in.
  24. Environmental Justice
    Equal distributions of environmental goods.
  25. Holism
    The whole system (ecosystem or earth) is more beneficial than the sum of its parts.
  26. Intrinsic Value
    value of a natural object in and for itself, is an ends rather than a means
  27. IPAT
    Influence=Population,Affluence, Technology
  28. Moral Extensionism
    An ethical principle stating that humans should extend their sphere of moral concern beyond the human realm; most commonly it is argued that intelligent or sentiment animals are worthy ethical subjects
  29. Naturalistic Fallacy
    A philosophically invalid derivation of an ethical 'ought' from a natural 'is'
  30. Pragmatism
    A branch of philosophy that arose in late nineteenth-century NA pragmatism considers real world consequence and effects to be constiuent components of truth and reality
  31. Preservation
    The management of a resource or environment for protection and preservation, typically for its own sake, as in wilderness preservation
  32. Scientism
    Usually deployed as a term of derision, refers to an uncritical reliance on the natural science as the basis for social decision making and ethical judgements.
  33. Social ecology
    A school of thought and set of social movements,associated with Murray Brookchin, asserting that environmental problems and crises are rooted in typical social structures and relationships, since these tend to be hierarchical, state-controlled, and predicted on domination of both people and nature.
  34. Stewardship
    Taking responsibility for the property or fate of others, stewardship of land and natural resources and is often used in a religious context, such as 'caring for creation'
  35. Utilitarian
    An ethical theory that the value of a good should be judged widely by its usefulness in society, following the 18th,19th century philosopher Jeremy Brentham, usefulness is equated with maximizing pleasure or happiness and minimizing pain and suffering.
  36. Wilderness
    a wild parcel of land, more or less unaffected by human forces, increasingly, wilderness is viewed as a social construction
  37. Affect
    Emotional or unconscious responses to the world that influence decision making
  38. Capital Accumulation
    tendency in capitalism for profits, capital goods, savings, and value to flow towards, pool in, and/or accrue in specific places, leading to the centralization and concentration of both money and power
  39. Commodification
    transformation of an object or resource from something valued in and for itself, to something valued genetically for exchange, In Marxist thought, the rise of the exchange value of a thing over its use value
  40. Commodity
    An object of economic value that is valued generically, rather than as a specific object. In political economy and Marxist though, an object made for exchange.
  41. Concept
    A single idea, usually captured in a word or phrase
  42. Conditions of Production
    The material or environmental conditions required for a specific economy to function, which may include things as varied as water for use in an industrial process to the health of workers to do the labor.
  43. Constructivist
    Emphasizing the significance of concepts, ideologies, and social practices to our understanding and making of (literally, constructing) the world
  44. Cultural Theory
    A theoretical framework associated with Mary Douglas that stresses the way individual perceptions are reinforced by group social dynamics, leading to a few paradigmatic, typical, and discrete ways of seeing and addressing problems
  45. Co-production
    the inevitable and ongoing process whereby humans and non-humans produce and change one another through their interaction and interrelation
  46. Discourse
    statements and texts are not mere representations of a material world, but rather power-embedded constructions that make the world we live in
  47. Eco-feminism
    Theories critical of the role of patriarchal society for degrading both the natural environment and the social condition of women
  48. Exchange Value
    The quality of a commodity that determines the quantity of other goods for which the commodity might be traded at a given moment, compare to use value.
  49. First Contradiction of Capitalism
    Capitalism to undermine its own perpetuation, through overproduction of commodities, reduction of wages for would-be consumers, etc. predicted to eventually lead to responses by workers to resist capitalism leadign to a new form of economy.
  50. Globalization
    An ongoing process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of exchange.
  51. Hazard
    object, condition, or process that threatens individuals and society in terms of production or reproduction
  52. Ideologies
    Normative, value-laden, world views that spell out how the world is and how it ought to be
  53. Means of production
    The infrastructure, equipment, machinery required to make things, goods, and commonities
  54. Narritive
    A story with a beginning and end, environmental narratives such as 'biological evolution' and the tragedy of the commons, that aid our comprehension and construction of the world
  55. Overaccumulation
    Capital becomes concentrated in very few hands or firms causing economic slowdown and potential socioeconomic crisis
  56. Primitive accumulation
    Direct appropriation by capitals of natural resources or goods from commodities that historically tend to hold them collectively
  57. Production of nature
    the idea that the environment is now a product of human industry and activity
  58. Relations of production
    the social relationships associated with a specific economy, as serfs/knights are to feudalism and workers/owners are to modern capitalism
  59. Risk
    the known probability that a hazard-related decision will have a neg. consequence
  60. Risk perception
    the tendency of people to evaluate the hazardousness of a situation in not-always -rational terms, depending on individual biases, culture, or human tendencies
  61. Second Contradiction of capitalism
    Tendency for capitalism to eventually undermine the environmental conditions for its own perpetuation, through degradation of natural resources or damage to the health of the workers, predicted to eventually lead to environmentalist and workers movements
  62. Relativism
    questioning the veracity of universal truth statements, relativism holds that all beliefs, truths, and facts are at root products of the particular set of social relations from which they arise
  63. Social Reproduction
    that part of the economy, especially including household work, that depends on unremunerated labor, but without rich the more formal cash economy would suffer and collapse
  64. Signifying Practices
    modes and methods of representation, the techniques used to tell stories, introduce and define concepts and communicate ideologies.
  65. Social Construction
    any category, condition, or thing that exists or is understood to have certain characteristics because people socially agree that it does
  66. Social Context
    the ensemble of social relations in a particular place at a particular time, includes belief systems, economic relations of production, and institutions of governance
  67. Superfund
    environmental program established to address abandoned hazardous waste sites in US
  68. Surplus value
    the value produced by underpaying labor or overextracting from the environment, which is accumulated by owners and investors
  69. Uncertainty
    the degree to which the outcomes of a decision or situation are unknown
  70. Use Value
    the quality of a commodity derived from its actual usefulness and importance for individuals since it fills a need or purpose
Card Set
People and Resources