What are the three macronutrients?
What are the roles of macronutrients?
- Provide energy
- Stuructural Integrity for the organism
What is fiber?
Non-starch form of carbohydrates
What are the two types of fiber?
Soluble and insoluble
What does fiber do for humans?
- Decrease cholesterol
- Help with diabetes type II
- lower Obesity
- may decrease risk of cancer
___________ is the stored form of carbohydrates
___________ is the process of synthesizing glycogen
glycogenesis (requires energy)
___________ is the process of removing a single gulcose molecule one at a time to provide energy. This process occurs in __________ and ___________.
Humans store how many calories from carbohydrates?
2000. carb/cal ratio is 4/1g. for every gram of carb = 4 cal
___________ amount of carbs is recomended for "lazy" people
___________ amount of carbs is recomended for active people
___________ amount of carbs is recomended for heavy training people
What are the roles of carbs?
- Energy source
- Protein sparer
- Facillitates fat metabolism
- Brain energy
Glycerol and 3 fatty acids make?
Lipolysis is the breakdown of ___________
Triglycerides ( yeilds glycerol and 3 fatty acids)
____________ is the major storage form of fat
Lipolysis occures during what type of exercise?
Fatty acids can either be _____________ or _____________
Saturated fatty acids are mainly in ___________ and _______ cholesterol and ___________ levels
- Animal products
- Raises cholesterol and LDL levels
Unsaturated fatty acids are primarly in ____________
What are two types of fatty acids and what do they do to cholesterol? LDL levels? HDL levels?
- Monounsaturated- Lowers cholesterol- Raises HDL- Lowers LDL
- Poly unsaturated- Lowers cholesterol- lowers HDL- Lowers LDL
What do FFA do in terms of triglyerides and blood clotting?
LDL does what?
"Bad" Has affinity for arterial walls
HDL does what?
"good" acts as a scavenger removing cholesterol from aterial walls and delivers it to the liver
Do we get more energy from carbs or lipids?
Lipids "fat paradox"
What is the fat paradox?
Even though we have 120 hours of energy in the form of fat we can not access it due to depleting glycogen reserves during exercise. Without carbs or glycogen we can not get at fat reserves for fuel
Proteins are made up of _________ linked together by ___________. Do we have a reserve of proteins in the body?
- Peptide bonds
- NO RESERVE
AHA recommendations of amount of lipids?
ACS recommendations for lipid intakes?
Recommended protein intake for "average" people
.83 g / kg of body weight
Recommended protein intake for "training" individuals?
1.2 - 1.8 g / kg of body weight
What is nitrogen balance?
When Total Nitrogen - N sweat, N urine, N feces = 0
Postive Nitrogen balance is seen when?
- illness recovery
- Weight training
Negative Nitrogen balance is seen when?
Fever, burns, diabetes, dieting, starvation
Vitamins can be __________ or ___________ soluble
Fat soluble vitamins are? and where are they delivered?
- ADK is delivered to the liver
- E is delivered to adipose tissue
If to much vit A?
If to much Vit D?
Body only produces this vitamin
Water soluble Vitamins are?
C, B-complex ( b12 is found in eggs, meats, oysters) if vegitarian idiot then must def provide supplement
Is there any correlation between athletic performance and vitamin supplementation?
H to the double L NO!
What holds more water? Fat? or Muscle?
- Muscle contains 70% water
- Fat contains 10% water
What are the roles of water in the body?
- Water transports: Nutrients, gases, waste
- Allows for gas diffusion across membraines
- Joint lubrication
- Cushion heart lungs etc.
- keeps body at constant temp
- provides structure to tissues
Glucose is used for energy through _______ which is a process that happens in the liver and muscles
Where is glycogen used that is produced in the biceps?
The biceps only. No other muscle
Hitting the wall refers to?
Glycogen depleation of both the liver and muscles
FFA's released from adipose tissue and __________ within the muscles are the major energy source during Low-mod exercise.
With low to mod exercise what initially is used as energy? After 1-2 hours what predominates the energy source?
- Carbs initally
- FFA's and IM triglycerides after about 1-2 hours
Why is fat utilization more effiecient in "trained" people?
- Increase in the total amount of enzymes assoc with lipolysis
- More capillaries = more oxygen
- Improved FFA transfer into muscle
- Improved FFA transfer into mitochondria
- Increased size and number of mitochondria
- Increased amount of enzymes that oxidize food (B-oxidation, citric acid cycle, etc.)
Low intensity uses:
Mod Intensity exercise uses:
Glycogen and FFA and IMTG's both contribute 50%
High intensity uses:
Fat as glycogen stores become depleated
Gluconeogenesis uses what?
Carbons from Pyruvate, lactic acid, and amino acids
What helps with prolonged activity?
Carbs. High carb diet people performed longer than people on the High Fat diet.
What should you eat and allow to happen before exercise?
- Food that replenishes glycogen levels
- Hydrates ya
- allow for proper digestion
Why are carbs favored as a Pre-exercise meal
- Replenish glycogen levels and are energy source for short max intensity exercise
- Protein metabolism facillitates dehydration
- Digestion occures faster than protein and fats.
Occures when you eat a high index carb right before exercise. Insulin overshoots and actually lowers Blood Glucose. However while exercising with ingestion of carbs this can not happen. Why? We release catecolamines that inhibit insulin. Plus we call on Glut-H to transport glycogen.
Rebound hypoglycemia affects?
- CNS impairment
- insulin inhibits lipolysis
- glycogen catabolism increases
A pre-exercise meal should be how much g of what and how long before exercise?
150 - 300 g of carbs 3 hours before exercise
Need to provide________ g of carbs during exercise every hour
Why intake of carbs during exercise?
muscle glycogen spared due to immediate glucose. Blood glucose levels do not fall into a hypoglycemic state.
What factors affect fluid absorbtion?
- Stomach emptying
- Absorbtion rate by intestines
High caloric intakes ___________ stomach emptying
The higher the intensity of exercise ___________ stomach emptying
Ph deviation ____________ stomach emptying
caused when you sweat to much and don't relplace with proper electrolytes. and you just drink plain water.
After exercise what should you eat? Within how long of exercise should you eat?
Within 2 hours a high glycemic food should be eatin to help restore glycogen levels. A 4:1 carb/protein drink is ideal. Chocolate milk, accelerade.
How does Fiber reduce cholesterol and help with CVD?
- Fiber may replace cholesterol rich food.
- Soluble fiber binds to Cholesterol and is excreated
- may help with CVD by reducing blood pressure and improving clotting characteristics
Saturated fat _____ total cholesterol. ________ HDL and _________ LDL levels
Trans fat _______ Total Cholesterol. _________ HDL and __________ LDL levels
In the conversion of Methionine to systine. ___________ is the intermediate. What does this intermediate do? And what enzymes catalyze this "intermediate" step?
Homocysteine. B6, B12 and folic acid Make this step quick so not alot of damage happens to arterial walls allowing cholesterol to bind.
How do we measure energy expenditure?
- Calorimetry. Either directly or indirectly.
- Indirectly- measure of oxygen during exercise to measure calorie burn.
- Directly- stick a person in an area and measure heat givin off during exercise.
- Food + 02 = heat, CO2, H20.
- Producing energy is an exergonic reaction
What are two ways to generate ATP?
- Movement of high energy phosphates (phosphorylation)
- Cellular Oxidation- Movement of H atoms from nutrients to oxygen.
- (Electron transport chain, Oxidative phosporylation)
Phosphorylation is adding a phosphate from __________ to ________ to make atp. this process happens mostly in cell cytosol.
we have ________ amount of Pcr compared to ATP
4-6x the amount
Pcr system of attaining atp can only provide energy for ____________
In the start of cellular oxidation what two carriers are reduced?
At the end what is 02 reduced to?
Where does cellular oxidation occur?
NADH yields how many atp per molecule?
FADH2 yields how many atp?
How many times during oxidative phosphorylation is atp produced?
What are three conditions in which need to be met to continue ATP synthesis?
NAD, FAD, 02 and sufficient enzymes in the mitochodria must be present.
Glycolysis is a 10 reaction process in which __________ is produced
2 molecules of pyruvate
Glycolysis occures where?
What are the products of Glycolysis?
2 NADH and 4 ATP (2 net)
Glycolysis is needed for the ________ seconds of exercise
1st 90 sec
So all in all what are the two systems that provide energy during the 1st start of exercise?
Glycolysis can occur under __________ and ______________ conditions.
When oxygen is present during glycolysis __________ is produced. However when oxygen is not available then _________ is produced.
During aerobic glycolysis NADH moves electrons to the ___________--
Under anaerobic conditions NADH ___________ transfer electrons. Thus __________ is reduced to lactate and NAD is made available.
After lactate is produced in glycolysis what becomes of it?
During cori cycle?
- oxidized back to pyruvate and used for energy
- shuttled to liver where it becomes glucose through gluconeogenesis
Is lactate a waste product?
When pyruvate converts to Acetyl CO-A how much energy is extracted from glucose?
What are the two functions of the Citric acid cycle?
- Remove H from nutrients for the etc via NAD and FAD
- Produce CO2
ATP can take place in __________ and ____________ conditions
aerobic and anaerobic
What are the two systems that can happen anaerobicly?
- Phosphorylation via Pcr
What are the three systems in which atp is generated aerobicly?
- citric acid cycle
- oxidative phosphorylation
1 molecule of glucose yields ___________ number of ATP total
since the body is not 100% efficent instead of being able to use the 686 Kcal /mol that is produced in citric acid cycle we only have __________ amount of Kcal/mol of useable energy
What is diabetes mellitus?
metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion or action
What are the two types of DM?
- Type 1 - B cells of pancreas are incapable of producing insulin
- Type 2 - insulin is produced but cells become insulin resistant (lifestyle related)
Decreased cellular uptake of glucose (to much) causes:
Blood sugar to spill over into urine
Decrease in cellular glucose causes:
person to rely on FFA metabolism which they can't completly do.
Ketone bodies are ____________-
What are the result of incomplete FFA metabolism and results in cellular acidosis
Over time ketone bodies can decrease PH which can lead to
What do tumor cells need to grow?
High fat = __________ cancer risk
to much lipid digestion (bile) just sitting in lg intestine creates:
apcholic acid (know carcinogen)
How does fiber help with cancer?
- Bulk passes substances through the GI tract faster.
- Bulk may dilute, bind, or inhibit chemical activity.
- Bulk may scrape inside walls of GI tract removing harmful substances
Free radicals __________ during exercise
Body has natural ___________ defenses to handle normal metabolism free radicals
antioxidents. Vit E may help
What contributes to cancer?
What helps prevent cancer?
- correct energy balance
- carbs Low GI
How do we determine the caloric value of food?
Direct calorimetry. What is the number of calories we get from
- Lipids 9.4 kcal/mol
- Carbs 4.2 kcal/mol
- Protein 5.65 in device but 4.6 kcal/mol in body. Why? more energy to break down. Thermogenic effect
Endergonic plus exergonic reactions = ?
Oxidation and reduction reactions occur how? and what do they release?
- Transfer of electrons
- Lg amounts of useable energy
what are the 2 ways for oxidation?
- lose electrons
- lose hydrogens
What are the two ways for oxidation?
- gain electrons
- gain hydrogens
Do redox reactions always happen together?