Pediatric Nutrition Exam 2 Vocab

  1. Nutrients
    substances found in foods that are essential requirements of life and, thus, are necessary for survival and growth
  2. Nutrition
    relationship between nutrients found in foods and their influence on the human body
  3. Phytochemicals
    natural compounds found in plants that may protect against disease and support good health
  4. antioxidants
    natural compounds found in plants that may protect cells from damage and thereby decrease risk of cancer
  5. sustainable food practices
    use of food production methods that protect environment and ability of future generations to produce food
  6. Environmental vegetarian
    individuals who choose a vegetarian lifestyle because they believe the production of animal foods is not sustainable
  7. Competitive foods
    foods provided outside the realm of traditional school food service such as foods from vending machines, school stores, a la carte menu options, and foods used for rewards and fundraising
  8. Malnutrition
    imbalance of one or more vital nutrients in the diet that support appropriate growth and development, resulting in under-nutrition or over-nutrition
  9. Under-nutrition
    type of malnutrition in which individuals do not get enough calories, protein, or other nutrients needed to meet their bodies' needs.
  10. Over-nutrition
    type of malnutrition where individuals consume too many calories
  11. Failure to thrive
    condition where growth rate slows or halts, may be due to underlying medical condition, such as heart/lung/digestive problems, or related to psychological, social, or financial problems within family
  12. psychosocial
    psychological and social factors that affect well-being
  13. Supplemental food programs
    federal food programs that provide nutrition assistance for at-risk populations such as children, low-income families, and the elderly
  14. iron-deficiency anemia
    • common single-nutrient deficiency of iron that results in body making fewer red blood cells with less hemoglobin than normal;
    • causes: sleepiness, impaired growth and development, increased risk of infection
  15. Rickets
    nutritional deficiency caused by lack of vitamin D; can cause bones to form improperly, skeletal deformities
  16. Vitamin D
    fat-soluble vitamin that aids in calcium absorption; can be obtained from dietary sources such as milk, yogurt, but also from sunlight
  17. Body Mass Index
    calculation that evaluates weight in relation to height to assess whether individual is obese or underweight
  18. Sleep apnea
    sleep disorder in which person's breathing pauses during sleep
  19. Energy expenditure
    amount of energy or calories used by body during rest and physical activity
  20. Food insecurity
    lack of access to enough food to prevent hunger at all times due to lack of financial resources
  21. Dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
    listing of daily estimated nutrient requirements; used to assess diets for adequacy at nutrient level
  22. Reference values
    point of reference for nutrient intake levels to help interpret adequacy or intake
  23. Essential nutrients
    nutrients that either cannot be made in the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to meet needs
  24. Macronutrients
    nutrient category that includes protein, fats, and carbs; they are the energy- or calorie-providing nutrients and are needed in large amounts in diet
  25. Carbohydrates
    macronutrients in the form of sugars and starches that provide body with energy
  26. Fats
    macronutrients that provide most concentrated source of energy for body; also used to cushion organs and insulate body
  27. Proteins
    essential macronutrients that function as the building blocks for body structures such as muscles and organs; can be used as source of energy
  28. Micronutrients
    nutrient category that includes vitamins and minerals that are required in much smaller amounts, but are essential because body cannot synthesize them and will not function properly without them.
  29. Vitamins
    organic or carbon-containing class of essential micronutrients that are not made in body or made in sufficient amounts
  30. Minerals
    inorganic or non-carbon containing class of micronutrients that are required in small amounts and must be obtained from diet
  31. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
    evidence-based nutrient goals that will meet 97%-98% of individual's daily nutrient requirements
  32. Adequate intakes (AIs)
    like RDAs, the estimated amount of nutrients will meet 97-98% of an individual's daily nutrient requirements, but is established when there is not enough evidence-based research to establish an RDA or EAR
  33. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)
    highest nutrient intake levels that pose no risk; used to ensure food safety by providing standards for individuals taking supplements or consuming fortified foods
  34. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)
    provide recommendations for protein, fat, and carb consumption, expressed as a percent of total calorie needs
  35. Daily Values (DVs)
    dietary reference values that are used on food labels and represent the requirements of an "average" individual, unlike DRI, which have reference values that represent different age and gender categories
  36. Trans fat
    type of unhealthy dietary fat that is created when oils are partially hydrogenated; when found in food can promote heart disease
  37. Gluten
    type of protein found in the grains of wheat, rye, and barley that causes symptoms in adults and children with celiac disease; oats are often avoided
  38. Celiac disease
    genetic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by an immune response to gluten that damages gastrointestinal tract and leads to malabsorption
  39. Nutrient-dense foods
    foods high in vitamin and mineral content while relatively low in calorie content
  40. Complementary foods
    liquids, semisolids, and solids that are not breast milk or formula and are introduced to infants' diets in stages based on development
  41. nutrition science
    study of how foods provide nourishment to support growth, maintenance and repair
  42. digestion
    mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods into smaller nutrient components to make it available for absorption
  43. digestive system
    gateway for all nutrients into the body; made up of the gastrointestinal tract and other accessory organs that aid in digestion
  44. gastrointestinal tract
    mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, part of body where foods are digested and changed into nutrients in anticipation of being absorbed.
  45. dysphagia
    disorder characterized by inability to swallow foods or liquids easily
  46. aspiration
    occurs when food or liquids get into lungs instead of into stomach
  47. gastroesophageal reflux
    reflux of stomach contents into esophagus
  48. gastroesophageal reflux diseas (GERD)
    severe reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus that causes pain, heartburn, indigestion, and when associated with excess vomiting, can result in poor growth in young children
  49. absorption
    transport of nutrients from the small intestine into the circulatory system
  50. villi
    located on surface of folds of the small intestine; is where absorption takes place
  51. microvilli
    located on surface of the villi, further expanding the surface area to enhance absorption of nutrients
  52. malabsorption
    occurs when damage to the small intestine's lining results in difficulty absorbing nutrients, leading to diarrhea and sometimes weight loss
  53. osteoporosis
    condition that results in porous, weak bones that break easily
  54. lactose intolerant
    term used to define an individual who experiences gas, bloating, and diarrhea because of an inability to break down the lactose found in milk
  55. calorie
    a unit of measurement of the amount of energy that is released from food when it is metabolized by the body
  56. basal metabolic rate
    a measurement of the baseline calories individuals need to sustain life and maintain the body's functions such as breathing, pumping blood, and repairing cells
  57. total energy expenditure
    a measurement of the number of calories needed by individuals; includes the basal metabolic rate plus the calories used for physical activity and digestion and absorption of food
  58. monosaccharides
    these are the simplest type of sugar consisting of single sugar unites and include glucose, fructose, and galactose
  59. disaccharides
    these are sugars that contain two single sugar unites, which are bonded together. they include sucrose, lactose, and maltose
  60. polysaccharides
    • complex carbohydrates that consist of multiple glucose sugars linked together in chains
    • also called starch
  61. insoluble fiber
    • type of dietary fiber that does not dissolve in water
    • comes from structural components of plant cell walls and is found in wheat bran, rice bran, whole-wheat breads, etc.
    • prevents constipation
  62. soluble fiber
    • type of dietary fiber that readily mixes with water to form gels
    • gives food a thickened consistency
    • oatmeal, oat bran, beans
    • protects against heart disease
  63. amino acids
    biological compounds that act as the building blocks for all proteins
  64. limiting amino acid
    essential amino acid that is lacking in a dietary protein source, thereby limiting protein synthesis
  65. complementary protein
    proteins that are low in different amino acids but can be combined to provide enough total essential amino acids to form all of the amino acids necessary to build human protein
  66. essential fatty acids
    • type of fatty acid that cannot be made by the body and must be obtained from the diet
    • needed for growth and maintaining a healthy immune system
  67. polyunsaturated fats
    • unsaturated fats with two or more double bonds in their chemical structure that come predominantly from plant sources
    • corn oil, safflower oil
    • reduce risk of heart
  68. monounsaturated fats
    • unsaturated fats with one double bond in their chemical structure
    • olive oil and canola oil
    • reduce heart disease
  69. omega-3 fatty acids
    • polyunsaturated fats that are found in fish and also plant oils such as canola and flaxseed oil
    • heart disease
  70. saturated fats
    fats found predominantly in animal sources that are solid at room temperature and are detrimental to heart health
  71. trans fatty acids
    fats formed during the process of hydrogenation where liquid oils are made solid and are especially harmful to heart health
  72. dietary cholesterol
    fat-like, waxy substance that is found in foods of animal origin, that plays a role in heart disease risk when consumed in excess
  73. lipoprotein
    fat and protein complex that helps transport fats and cholesterol in blood stream
  74. low-density lipoprotein
    class of lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in bloodstream
  75. plaque
    fatty deposits made of cholesterol and other fatty compounds that clog the arteries of the heart and increase risk of heart attack
  76. high-density lipoprotein
    class of lipoprotein that transports excess cholesterol from bloodstream back to liver where it is excreted
  77. water-soluble vitamins
    • vitamins that dissolve in water and are stored in body
    • b vitamins
    • vitamin c
  78. coenzymes
    • compounds that help enzymes in their activities
    • used to release energy
  79. fat-soluble vitamins
    • vitamins that dissolve in fat
    • vitamins a, d, k, e
  80. macrominerals
    • minerals needed in larger amounts
    • 100mg/day or more
  81. microminerals
    • minerals needed in smaller amounts
    • 15 mg/day or less
  82. electrolytes
    subcategory of minerals that help regulate fluids in and out of body's cells and help transmit nerve impulses
  83. dehydration
    a dangerous lack of water in body due to not drinking enough
  84. phytochemicals
    health-promoting substances obtained from a diet rich in fruits and vegetables
  85. nonheme iron
    • type of iron that is not readily absorbed by body
    • found in plants
  86. heme iron
    readily absorbed form of iron found in meats
Card Set
Pediatric Nutrition Exam 2 Vocab
Pediatric Nutrition, Dr. Wilson, chapters 3,4 obesity. exam 2