Biology 109

  1. Angiosperm
    a flowering plant. Has its seeds enclosed in an ovary.
  2. fruit
    a mature ovary
  3. sporophyte
    multicellular body produced by mitotic division of the diploid zygote.
  4. spores
    reproductive cells produced by meiosis in a mature sporophyte
  5. gametophyte
    multicellular body that has haploid cells and produces gamets, egg, and sperm
  6. fibrous root system
    mat of thin roots that spread out below the soil surface
  7. what is the advantage of a fibrous root system?
    It extends the plant's exposure to soil water and minerals and anchors it to the ground.
  8. taproot system
    one large vertical root that produces many small lateral, or branch roots.
  9. What is the advantage of a taproot system?
    Taproots anchor the plant to the ground, store food hat supports flowering and fruit production.
  10. Monocots have a (taproot, fibrous) system.
  11. Dicots have a (Taproot, fibrous) system.
  12. Root hairs
    extentions of individual epidermal cells on the root surface.
  13. what is the function of root hairs?
    increase surface area to maximize water and mineral absorption.
  14. The presence of a terminal bud is partly responsible for inhibiting the growth of axillary buds in a phenomenon called
    apical dominance
  15. What is the advantage to apical dominance?
    Allows the plant to grow tall fast.
  16. Pruning
    removal of terminal buds
  17. What is the main photosynthetic organ of most plants?
    the leaves
  18. What is the difference between monocot and dicot leaves?
    Most monocots have parallel major veins that run the length of the blade (grass), while dicot leaves have a multibranched network of major veins (maple leaves.)
  19. Dermal tissue
    a single layer of tightly packed cells that covers and protects all young parts of the plant.
  20. cuticle
    waxy coating of leaves that helps the arial parts of the plant retain water.
  21. Vascular tissue
    continuous throughout the plant and is invlolved in the transport of materials between roots and shoots.
  22. Xylem
    vascular tissue that conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into shoots
  23. Phloem
    transports food mafe in mature leaves to the roots and to nonphotosynthetic parts of the shoot system.
  24. Tracheids
    tapered elongated, dead cells within the xylem that moves water from cell to cell and has secondary walls with lignin.
  25. sieve-tube members
    structures within the phloem tha tform chains of cells to move sucrose, organic compounds, and some mineral ions. They are alive at functional maturity, although they lack a nucleus, ribosomes, and a vacuole.
  26. Ground tissue
    tissue that is neither dermal tissue nor vascular tissue.
  27. pith
    ground tissue internal to vascular tissue in dicots
  28. cortex
    ground tissue external to vascular tissue in dicots
  29. What are the funtions of ground tissue?
    photosynthesis, storage, and support.
  30. meristems
    perpetually embryonic tissues (stem cells of plants)
  31. Apical meristems represent (primary, secondary) growth.
  32. Lateral meristems represent (primary, secondary) growth.
  33. Growth in length is concentrated near the root's tip where three zones of cells are located:
    • -Zone of elongation
    • -Zone of cell division
    • -Zone of maturation
  34. Vascuar cambium
    acts as a meristem for the production of secondary xylem and secondary phloem
  35. Wood is the accumulation of:
    layer upon layer of secondary xylem
  36. wood consists mainly of
    tracheids, vessel elements, and fibers
  37. Cork cambium
    acts as a meristem for a tough thick covering for stems and roots that replaces the epidermis
  38. periderm
    a protective layer that replaces the epidermis
  39. Bark
    all tissues external to the vascular cambium, including secondary phloem, cork cambium, and cork.
  40. The most important active transporter in the plasma membrane of plant cells is
    proton pump
  41. Transport in plants occurs on tree levels:
    • 1. the uptake and loss of water and solutes by individual cells
    • 2. short-distance transport of substances from cell to cell
    • 3. long-distance transport of sap within xylem and phloem at the level of the whole plant.
  42. symplast
    cytosolic compartments of neighboring cells connected by plasmodesmata.
  43. apoplast
    connected adjacent plant cell walls
  44. transmembrane route
    route of transportation that requires repeated crossings of plasma membranes
  45. symplast route
    route of transportation that requires only one crossing of a plasma membrane
  46. apoplast route
    route of transportation that follows the extracellular pathway consisting of cell wall and extracellular spaces.
  47. Bulk flow
    the movement of fluid driven by pressure
  48. Casparian strip
    a water-impermeable ring of wax in the endodermal cells of plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls.
  49. stele
    the vascular tissue of a stem or root
  50. How does water move?
    from high to low water potential
  51. What creates the water potential?
    transpiration, root pressure
  52. Transpiration
    the evaporative loss of water from a plant.
  53. root pressure
    The upward push of xylem sap in the vascular tissue of roots.
  54. What helps a plant control loss of water?
    Guard cells
  55. How do guard cells help balance a plant's need to conserve water?
    By controlling the size of stomata.
  56. When gaurd cells take in water, they become more turgid which meas that the stoma is
  57. When the guard cells lose water and become flaccid, this means the stoma is
  58. Stomatal closing results when an exodus of ( ) from guard cells
    potassium ions
  59. membrane potential
    The difference in electrical charge across a cell's plasma membrane, due the differential distribution of ions.
  60. What causes the potassium ion flux in guard cells?
    active photosyntesis: proton pumps, membrane potential
  61. In general, sieve tubes carry food from a ( ) to a ( ).
    sugar source to a sugar sink
  62. sugar source
    a plant organ in which sugar is being produced by either photosynthesis or the breakdown of starch
  63. sugar sink
    an organ (such as growing roots, shoots or fruit) that is a net consumer or storer of sugar.
  64. list the three levels of sucrose transport
    • 1. at the cellular level across membranes, sucrose accumulates in the phloem by active transport
    • 2. at the short-distance level within organs, sucrose migrates to phloem via the symplast and apoplast
    • 3. at the long-distance level between organs, bulk flow within sieve tubes transports phloem sap from sugar sources to sugar sinks
Card Set
Biology 109
Exam 2