Caribbean Archaeology

  1. No pirate had a "pirate ship" built to specs. Who is the exception?
    Stede Bonnet
  2. What are the two categories of ships?
    Men o' War

  3. Merchantmen were also know as...
  4. What were the usual characteristics of a merchant ship?
    cargo ships

    many shapes and riggings
  5. What are the usual characteristics of Men o' War ships?
    Battling ships

    Some were HUGE

    Used by Navy
  6. Were the majority of pirate ships merchant ships or Men o' War ships?
    Most were merchant ships
  7. Which two pirates had Men o' War ships?
    Black Bart Roberts

    Edward Teach (aka Black Beard)
  8. Image Upload 2
    What kind of ship is this?
  9. How can you tell it is a sloop?
    Single mast

    Shallow draft

    Ship rigged
  10. Why was the sloop preferred by pirates and pirate hunters?
    Highly maneuverable


    East to hide

    Can sit in shallow water
  11. What is the draft of a boat?
    How much water it needs to sit in to hold it up
  12. Image Upload 4
    What kind of rigging is used?
    How can you tell?
    Ship rigging

    It is parallel to the ship
  13. Image Upload 6
    How is this ship rigged?
    How can you tell?
    Square Rigged

    It looks square, perpendicular to the boat
  14. Image Upload 8
    What type of ship is this?
    A Hoy
  15. What are Hoy ships used for?
    Short hauls

    Coastal hit and runs
  16. How may guns and crew on a Hoy?
    6-10 guns

    20-30 crew
  17. Image Upload 10
    What kind of ship is this?
  18. How can you tell it is a crumster?
    3 masts

    Square rigged

    Several sails
  19. What were crumsters generally used for?
    Long hauls (not as maneuverable)
  20. How many guns and crew to a crumster?
    12-20 guns

    20-30 crew
  21. Image Upload 12
    What type of ship is this?
  22. How does a Schooner differ from a Sloop?
    Schooner has 2 masts
  23. What are the characteristics of a Schooner?
    What made it a pirate favorite?
    Ship rigged


  24. How many guns and crew to a schooner?
    12 guns

    75 crew
  25. Image Upload 14
    What type of ship is this?
  26. How can you tell it is a brig?
    2 masts
  27. How many guns and crew to a brig?
    12-20 guns

    100 crew
  28. Image Upload 16
    What type of ship is this?
  29. This general spanish design of a galleon was used by...


    Treasure fleets
  30. How many guns and crew to a galleon?
    80 + guns

    200 crew
  31. Disadvantages to a galleon?
    Top heavy

    Less stable

    Less maneuverable
  32. 3 types of Men o' War:


    Ship of the Line
  33. Characteristics of the Corvette:
    Smalles of the naval ships

    1 gun deck
  34. How many guns and crew to a corvette?
    10-20 guns

    40-50 crew
  35. Characteristics of a Frigate:
    Most common

    1 1/2 gun decks
  36. How many guns and crew to a frigate?
    24-40 guns

    80-120 crew
  37. Characteristics of a Ship of the Line:

    Most powerful

    3 or 4 gun decks
  38. How many guns and crew to a Ship of the Line?
    32-144 guns

    400 crew
  39. How are vessels measured?
    Using tonnage
  40. What is tonnage?
    Volume of the enclosed interior space
  41. What is the measurement of tonnage?
    1 ton = 100 cubic feet
  42. Royal Fortune (Roberts ship): how many guns, tons:
    52 guns

    600 tons
  43. HMS Swallow: how many guns, tons:
    54 guns

    673 tons
  44. Queen Ann's Revenge: how many guns, tons:
    40 guns

    300 tons
  45. USS Constitution (first American war ship): how many guns and tons:
    44 guns

    2200 tons
  46. Image Upload 18
    Poop Deck:
    Biggest mast

    First mast

    Smallest mast

    Tallest point at the back of a ship

    Very front of the ship
  47. Was speed or armament more important to a pirate?
  48. What is careening?
    Cleaning the hull of barnacles, seaweed and toredo worms
  49. What did effect did barnacles and seaweed have on a ship?
    Loss of speed
  50. What effect did toredo worms have on a ship?
    They literally ate the wood of the hull
  51. Good aspect to careening?

  52. Bad aspect to careening?

    Exposed to hostile natives

  53. How would the pirates protect themselves while careening?
    Build fortified camps
  54. How often was careening necessary?
    Every 3 to 4 months in the tropics
  55. How long did it take to careen a ship?
    2-3 weeks
  56. How did they careen the ships?
    Unloaded EVERYTHING

    Bring her into shallow water

    Roll from side to side

    Burn, scrape, recaulk
  57. Decides strategy and tactics
  58. Steers the ship and enforces order (like a
    platoon sergeant), chief of the boat
  59. Plots the course
  60. Maintains rigging and manages propulsion, engineer
  61. Fixes the hull and masts
  62. Maintains guns and magazine
    Gunnery officer
  63. Handle cannon
  64. What two people did the pirates love to seize?
    Sailing master

  65. Goal of Navigation:
    Find the known shipping lanes
  66. Navigation Tools



  67. Compass
    Gives direction
  68. Backstaff
    Gives latitude by measuring altitude of the sun at noon
  69. Spyglass, charts
    Help when you have landmasses

    Use to identify characteristics of landmasses to tell where you are
  70. How did they find longitude (east/west)?
    No reliable way to determine

    Hit your latitude, and turn
  71. What is the objective of pirates?
    To steal and not get caught
  72. To steal, Plan A:
    Scare them into submission

    Black Flag
  73. Black flag said:
    “I’m a pirate, surrender or else”
  74. To steal, Plan B
    Take her by force

    Red Flag
  75. Red flag says:
    “You had your chance, now no quarter will be given"
  76. How to capture a prize:
    Step 1: Disable her so she can’t flee

    • Step 2: Clear the decks of personnel, but
    • maintain hull integrity

    Step 3: Approach and board
  77. How to disable a ship (Step 1):
    • Break stuff that slows her down by is
    • reparirable (rigging, sails, spars, booms, masts, etc)
  78. What do you use do disable a ship?
    Chain shot, bar shot, and jointed shot
  79. Cannon are made of:
    Iron or bronze
  80. How do you measure a cannon?
    By the weight of what it can shoot
  81. Major problem with cannon:
    Only good for a limited number of shots
  82. 4 cannon sizes:
    2 pounder

    6 pounder

    24 pounder

    32 pounder
  83. 2 pounder:
    2.5 inch bore

    600 lbs
  84. 6 pounder:
    3 inch bore

    1000-1500 lbs
  85. 24 pounder:
    4.5 inch bore

    3-4000 lbs
  86. 32 pounder:
    5 inch bore

    4000-5000 lbs
  87. Some parts of a Cannon:


  88. Cascabel:
    • The knob at the end that would be
    • used to aim
  89. Vent:
    The hole at the back to light it
  90. Trunnion:
    How you would attach it to a sled or a cart
  91. Swivel guns:
    • Rail mounted cannon that fired shot
    • up to 3.5 cm in dimameter
  92. Cannon operation took a crew of:
    2-12 per cannon
  93. Max range of a cannon:
    2 miles
  94. Flat range of a cannon:
    300 yards
  95. How to clear the decks (Step 2):
    Kill every living thing in view
Card Set
Caribbean Archaeology
Pirate Archeology Test 2