- aluminum hydroxide (amphojel)
- calcium carbonate (tums)
- dihydroxyaluminum (rolaids)
- aluminum/ magnesium hydroxide (maalox, mylanta)
antacid drug info?
- action; neutralizes gastric acid
- drug indications; heartburn, peptic ulcer disease, GERD
- contraindications; undiagnosed abd pain, intestinal obstruction
- adverse reactions; magnesium products=diarrhea, calcium/aluminum products=constipation
- excess antacids=met alkalosis
- interactions; impairs drug absorption (take 1-2 hours after/before other oral drugs
- NI; shake liquids, sm. amt. of water afterwards, chew tablets fallowed by a glass of water, dont use more than 2 weeks, never exceed dose, monitor stools
histamine H2 antagonist drugs
- cimetidine (tagamet)
- ranitidine (zantac)
- famotidine (pepcid)
histamine h2 antagonist info?
- action; blocks histamine which decreases gastric acid
- indications; peptic ulcer disease, GERD
- contraindications; pregnancy and lactation, children under 16
- adverse reactions; ha, dizziness, confusion, diarrhea
- interactions; do not take with antacids, decrease metabolism of coumadin, dilantin, ineral, valium, flagyl, theophylline, and calcium channel blockers
- NI; take zantac at bedtime, avoid smokin, alchol, caffeine
gastric acid-pump inhibitor drugs:
- omeprazole (prilosec)
- lansoprozole (prevacid)
gastric acid-pump inhibitor info?
- action; blocks last step in gastric acid production (proton pump inhibitor)
- indications; peptic ulcer disease, GERD
- contraindications; liver disease
- adverse reactions; may be taken with antacid, increase effects of coumadin, dilantin, valium
- NI; take befor breakfast, monitor liver enzymes
mucosal protectant drugs;
- sucralfate (carafate)
- misoprostol (cytotec)
mucosal protectant info?
- action; increase mucus production in stomach giving protection against acid damage
- indications; helpts prevent NSAID induced gastric ulcers
- contraindications; not effective for duodenal ulcers
- adverse reactions; gi distress, diarrhea
- NI; do not crush, give QID
GI stimulant drugs;
Gi stimulant drug info?
- action; speeds GI tract motility to increase gastric emptying
- indications; GERD, gastric stasis (food fails to move out of stomach)
- contraindications; intestinal obstruction, GI bleeding
- adverse reactions; drowsiness, dizziness
- interactions; don't give with anticholinergics, narcotic analgesics
- NI; give po 30 min before meals, provide safety for dizzy, check bowl sounds
GI antispasmodic drugs?
- propantheline (probanthine)
- dicycomine (bentyl)
GI antispasmodic info?
- action; slows gi tract motility and relaxes smooth muscles
- indications; treats IBS
- contraindications; glaucoma, bph, intestinal obstruction
- adverse reactions; dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention
- interactions; no anticholinergics (similar effect)
- NI; give po before meals, sips of liquid for dry mouth, monitor urination
Laxative (bulk forming) drugs?
psyllium (metamucil) Dont give dry!!!!!!!!!
Laxative (stimulants) drugs?
Laxative (saline) drugs?
magnesium hydroxide (milk of mag)
mineral oil (interferes with adek)
laxative (stool softener)
ducostate (coloce, surfak)
glycerin suppository (fleets enema)
- action; stimulates peristalsis, absorbs water into stool, softens stool
- indications; treats constipation, cleans out intestines before x rays or surgery, prevents straining for cardiac pts and eye or cranial surgery
- contraindications; abdominal pain, appendicitis, intestinal obstruction
- adverse reactions; abd cramps, diarrhea, fluid and electrolyte imbalances
- NI; never use if abd pain, give w/ a lot of water, increase fiber, record bm, avoid long-term or habitual use
- diphenoxylate with atropine (lomotil)
- loperamide (imodium)
- kaolin with pectin (kaopectate)
- action; decrease peristalsis in the intestine
- contraindications; liver disease, children under 2
- adverse reactions; abd cramps, constipation, lomotil may be habit forming
- NI; give after each loose stool, push fluids
simethicone (gas x, mylicon)
- action; bunches gas bubbles together, does not prevent gas formation
- indications; relieves gas pains after surgery or with gi disorders
- adverse reactions; none
- NI; give after meals, enc ambulation
digestive enzyme drugs?
pancrelipase (cotazym, viokase)
digestive enzyme info:
- action; breaks down fats, chos, and proteins
- indications; replacement therapy for missing enzymes (pancreas cancer, pancreatitis, pancreas removal, cystic fibrosis
- adverse reactions; nausea, cramps, diarrhea
- NI; give po with each meal
- check for fatty stool=ineffective therapy
emetic drug info?
- action; promotes vomiting
- indications;treats drug overdose or poison ingestion
- contraindications; unconcious or convulsing, ingested corrosive agent
- NI; contact poison control, vomiting within 20 min
- indication; treats cholelithiasis (gall bladder)
- contraindications; allergy to bile salts, liver failure
- adverse reactions; nausea, diarrhea
- NI; prolonged therapy for many months and low fat diet, liver function tests, gb us to check on effect,