Pathophys 3.2

  1. Neoplasia
    • process of altered cell differentiation and growth
    • lacks normal regulatory control
  2. Neoplasm
    • new growth
    • tumor
  3. How neoplastic growth differs from normal adaptive changes
    • growth is uncoordinated
    • growth is autonomous
    • growth lacks normal regulatory controls of the cell cycle
  4. Cancer
    disease that results from altered cell dfferentiation
  5. Cell proliferation
    • Cell duplicates contents and divides
    • genetic info duplicated and distributed to daughter cells
    • checkpoints for pauses or arrests in cell cycle
    • Cells become more specialized
  6. Proliferation Hallmarks of Cancer Cells
    • Abnormal and rapid proliferation
    • Undifferenciated cells are halmark of cancer cells
  7. Apoptosis
    insufficient apoptosis has been implicated in causing cancer
  8. Malignant neoplasms
    • may grow own blood vessels
    • may metastasize to different sites
    • invade neighboring tissues
  9. Benign neoplasms
    • localized growth
    • doesn't metastasize
    • may affect organs that is is near
    • better differentiation
  10. Carcinoma
    cover external and internal body surfaces
  11. Sarcoma
    • supporting tissues of the body
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • fat
    • connective tissue
    • muscle
  12. Lymphoma
    lymph nodes and tissues of the immune system
  13. Role of Genes in development of neoplasia
    • genetic chages in cancer cells alter the normal control of mechanisms of cell physiology
    • DNA nucleotide mutations
    • DNA strand breakage with loss of genes
    • DNA strand breakage with rearrangement of genes
    • Amplification of specific genes
  14. Onccogenes
    • enhanced biochemical activity leads to altered cell phenotype
    • cell division stimulated w/o growth factor
    • activation of proto-oncogenes
    • activation of viral oncogene
  15. Tumor suppressors
    • loss of activity leads to altered cell phenotype
    • mainly cell cycle regulaters
    • tumor necrosis factor
  16. Genes that control genomic instability
    loss of activity leads to many kinds of cell mutations
  17. Proto-oncogenes
    precursors of genes that can gain the ability to be dominant-acting oncogenes
  18. Viruses
    • may induce oncogenes
    • 20% of all cancers
    • HPV
    • HepC
    • EBarr Virus
  19. Viral induced Oncogenes (HPV)
    disregulates G1/S checkpoint
  20. Loss of Tumor suppressor activity
    • many tumor suppressor genes encode cell cycle regulatory proteins
    • p53 and pRB
    • both genes must be inactivated to achieve the "cancer phenotype"
  21. Epigenetics
    • gene expression control
    • passed from cell to offspring
    • not reflected in changes in DNA sequence
  22. Examples of epigenetic mechanisms
    • DNA methylation
    • Histone modification
    • Noncoding RNAs
  23. Carcinogenesis
    the process by which carcinogenic agents cause normal cells to become cancer cells
  24. Steps of Carcinogenesis
    • Initiation
    • -dose based
    • Promotion
    • -unregulated and accelerated growth
    • Progression
    • -gain of malignant characteristics, evasion of immune system
  25. Clinical manifestations of cancer
    • disruption of tissue integrity
    • anorexia/cachexia(wasting)
    • fatigue and sleep disorders
    • anemia
  26. Goal of cancer therapies
    • curative - rid of tumor
    • control - stop growth
    • palliative - reduce burden
  27. Methods of treatment
    • surgery
    • radiation
    • chemotherapy
    • hormone therapy
    • biotherapy
Card Set
Pathophys 3.2
Neoplasia: Dysfunctional Cell Differentiation and Growth