childhood disorders

  1. criteria for Mental Retardation
    • significantly sub-average intellectual functioning ( IQ 70 or below)
    • concurrent deficits or impairments in adaptive functioning in two of the following areas: communication, self care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, work, leisure, health
    • onset before 18 years
  2. Mild retardation
    IQ is 55 to 70
  3. Moderate retardation
    IQ is 40-54
  4. severe retardation
    IQ is 25-39
  5. profound retardation
    IQ is below 25
  6. features of fetal alcohol syndrome
    • the most preventable cause of MR
    • epicanthal folds
    • low nasal bridge
    • short nows
    • indistinct philtrum
    • small head circumference
    • wide set eyes
    • thin upper limit
  7. perinatal causes of MR
    • fetal malnutrition
    • premature birth
    • fetal hypoxia
    • birth trauma
  8. mental status exam findings for MR
    • communication deficits
    • dependency
    • passivity
    • poor self-esteem
    • low frustration tolerance
    • aggressiveness
    • stereotypic, repetitive motor movements
    • self-injurious behavior
  9. onset and clinical symptoms of autism
    • onset before 3 years- before 30 months
    • impaired development in social interaction and communication
    • language disturbance ( delayed, deviant, echolalia)
    • stereotypic behavior ( hair pulling, flapping arms, rocking)
    • self-injurious behavior (wrist biting, hair pulling)
  10. mental status findings of Autism
    • little or no eye contact
    • flat or blunted affect
    • lack of emotional reciprocity
    • stereotypic or repetitive motor movements
  11. criteria for Asperger's Disorder
    • severe and sustained impairment in social interaction as seen by:
    • failure to develop appropriate peer relationships
    • impairments in use of non-verbal behavior
    • lack of social or emotional reciprocity
    • restricted, repetitive behaviors in the following areas:
    • preoccupation with one or more stereotyped, restricted pattern of interest
    • inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals
    • normal intelligence, good verbal skills
    • impulsivity or aggression are common
    • common with tic disorders
  12. Rett's disorder
    • characterized by development of multiple deficits following a period of normal functioning
    • deceleration of head growth between 5 and48 months
    • loss of language skills
    • loss of previously acquired purposeful hand skills
    • loss of interest in social environment
    • only in girls
  13. childhood disintegrative disorder
    • characterized by significant regression in multiple areas of functioning after at least 2 years of normal growth and development
    • loss of social skills or adaptive behavior
    • loss of bowel or bladder control
    • loss of play and motor skills
    • occurs between ages 3 and 4
  14. applied behavioral analysis (ABA)
    • treatment for autism, other pervasive developmental disorders
    • teaches appropriate behaviors that are to be generalized to all domains of a child's environment
  15. pharmacologic treatments for PDD
    • antipsychotics: for aggression, agitation, irritability, hyperactivity
    • SSRIs: for anxiety, perseveration, compulsions, depression and social isolation
    • stimulants: for hyperactivity and inattention
    • alpha-2 agonists: for hyperactivity and inattention
    • naltrexone: for self-injurious behavior
    • amantadine: for hyperactivity, irritability and aggression
    • melatonin: for sleep dysregulation
  16. AD/HD
    • characterized by persistent inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness
    • persistent need for stimulation, over-focus on activities of enjoyment, hypersensitive perception of justice
    • avoidance or difficulty completing tasks that are challengin
  17. ADHD comorbidities
    • anxiety
    • depression
    • mood disorder
    • learning disorders
  18. Learning disorders
    • verbal: problems with reading and writing, usually identified in 1st grade
    • nonverbal: mathematics, can go undetected until 5th grade
    • low self-esteem and poor social skills are common
    • early identification, effective intervention and lack of co-existing problems associated with better outcomes
  19. communication disorders
    communication deficit that hinders development, academic achievement or activities of daily living, including socialization
  20. Expressive Language Disorder
    • impaired ability to communicate through verbal and sign language
    • difficulty learning new words and speaking in complete sentences
    • speech is limited
    • disorder can be present at birth or acquired as result of neurologic/brain injury
  21. Mixed Receptive/Expressive language disorder
    • combination of expressive language disorder and difficulty understanding ( receiving) and determining the meaning of words and sentences
    • may be present at birth or acquired from neurologic/brain injury
  22. Phonologic Disorder
    • problem with articulation- forming sounds associated with speech
    • familial
    • occur more in boys than girls
  23. stuttering
    • disturbance of normal fluency and time patterning of speech
    • familial
    • more common in boys than girls
  24. Developmental coordination disorder
    • impaired coordination severe enough to interfere with academic achievement or activities of daily living
    • becomes evident when child attempts to crawl or walk or an older child tries to dress independently or manipulate toys
    • often co-exists with communication disorder, can persist into adulthood
  25. Separation Anxiety Disorder
    • school phobia often
    • occurs in 4% of school age children
    • runs in families
    • may emerge after a change
    • treatment: antidepressants, psychotherapy, behavior therapy
  26. Enuresis
    • involuntary excretion or urination after at age of attainment of bladder control
    • common in boys
    • need to limit fluid intake in evening
  27. encopresis
    • soiling clothes with feces or depositing feces in inappropriate places
    • more common in boys
    • usually not result of physical problems
    • use educational and behavioral interventions
Card Set
childhood disorders