American Board of Opticianry License Test

  1. The eye is made up of three layers, they are the:




    C. The eye is made up of three layers, they are the Fibrous tunic, Vascular tunic, and the Nervous tunic.
  2. The corneal consists of 5 layers which in order from anterior to posterior are:




    B. The corneal consists of 5 layers which in order from anterior to posterior are the Epithelium, Bowmans membrane, Stroma, Descemets membrane, Endothelium
  3. The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the:




    A. The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the iris.
  4. There are approximately ____ million rods located mainly in the periphery of the retina and ____ million cones located centrally in retina. (place them in the correct order)




    C. There are approximately 120 million rods located mainly in the periphery of the retina and 6 million cones located centrally in retina.
  5. The term for the refractive condition where light comes to a focus directly on the retina:




    D. The term for the refractive condition where light comes to a focus directly on the retina is Emmetropia.
  6. The term for the refractive condition where light comes to a focus behind the retina:




    D. The term for the refractive condition where light comes to a focus behind the retina is Hyperopia.
  7. The term for the refractive condition where light comes to a focus in front of the retina:




    C. The term for the refractive condition where light comes to a focus in front of the retina is Myopia
  8. The term for the refractive condition where light comes to a focus on 2 different points:




    D. The term for the refractive condition where light comes to a focus on 2 different points is Astigmatism.
  9. The onset of presbyopia generally begins at age:




    D. The onset of presbyopia generally begins at age 40
  10. The 6 extraocular muscles responsible for stabilization of the eye are:




    A. The 6 extraocular muscles responsible for stabilization of the eye are: Lateral rectus, Medial rectus, Superior rectus, Inferior rectus, Superior oblique, Inferior oblique
  11. When the eye has a tendency to turn from it’s normal position it is called:




    C. When the eye has a tendency to turn from it’s normal position it is called phoria
  12. When the eye has a definite or obvious turning from it’s normal position it is called:




    D. When the eye has a definite or obvious turning from it’s normal position it is called Tropia
  13. Phorias and tropias are further defined by their direction of movment: ____ as meaning outward (temporally), ____ as meaning inward (nasaly), ____ as meaning downward, and ____ as meaning upward. (place them in the correct order)




    D. Phorias and tropias are further defined by their direction of movment: Exo as meaning outward (temporally), eso as meaning inward (nasaly), hypo as meaning downward, and hyper as meaning upward.
  14. We really see with our _______ .




    C. We really see with our brain not our eyes.
  15. A perfect human eye is said to be ____________.




    B. A perfect human eye is said to be emmetropic.
  16. Everyone will suffer from __________ if they live long enough.




    B. Everyone will supper from presbyopia if they live long enough.
  17. Astigmatism means that the patient’s cornea is _____.




    A. Astigmatism means that the patient's cornea is misshapen.
  18. The fibrous tunic consists of the




    A. The fibrous tunic consists of the sclera and cornea
  19. Fusion occurs in the




    A. Fusion occurs in the brain
  20. Aqueous humor is produced by the




    D. Aqueous humor is produced by the ciliary body
  21. The index of refraction of the cornea is




    D. The index of refraction of the cornea is 1.37
  22. When light entering the eye, without corrective lenses, comes to a focus partially in front of the retina and partially in back of the retina, the patient's refractive error is ______ .




    C. When light entering the eye, without corrective lenses, comes to a focus partially in front of the retina and partially in back of the retina, the patient's refractive error is Mixed Astigmatism.
  23. When light entering the eye, without corrective lenses, comes to a focus in front of the retina, the patient's refractive error is ________.




    B. When light entering the eye, without corrective lenses, comes to a focus in front of the retina, the patient's refractive error is Myopia
  24. The patient normally has no need for any visual correction for distance, but does require prescription lenses to see well at near. This patient's refractive error is known as




    A. The patient normally has no need for any visual correction for distance, but does require prescription lenses to see well at near. This patient's refractive error is known as Presbyopia
  25. An Rx with the O.D. minus and the O.S. plus is an obvious case of _______.




    A. An Rx with the O.D. minus and the O.S. plus is an obvious case of Antimetropia
  26. Accommodation is defined as _____________




    D. Accommodation is defined as the act of the crystalline lens changing its shape to focus for objects at varying distances
  27. The speed of light is:




    B. The speed of light is 186,000 meters/second
  28. The wavelength of 700nm is seen as what color:




    B. The wavelength of 700nm is seen as red
  29. In a minus powered lens light rays ____ and come to a focal point ____ the lens.




    B. In a minus powered lens light rays diverge and come to a focal point behind the lens.
  30. Light rays pass through a lens and converge at a point 50cm behind the lens, what is the power?




    C. Light rays pass through a lens and converge at a point 50cm behind the lens, the power is 2.00 D
  31. 1 Prism Diopter can be described as deviating a ray of light:




    C. 1 Prism Diopter can be described as deviating a ray of light: 10 cm/1000 cm
  32. 3 Prism Diopters base in on the right eye can also be described as:




    A. 3 Prism Diopters base in on the right eye can also be described as 3 @ 000o
  33. Using Prentice’s Rule a -4.00 lens must be decentered ___ to induce 1.00 Prism Diopter:




    A. Using Prentice’s Rule a -4.00 lens must be decentered 2.5 mm to induce 1.00 Prism Diopter
  34. The index of refraction is lowest in




    C. The index of refraction is lowest in Air
  35. When the direction of light changes as it passes from one medium to another, it is called




    C. When the direction of light changes as it passes from one medium to another, it is called Refraction.
  36. The focal length of a +2 diopter lens is




    C. The focal length of a +2 diopter lens is +50 cm
  37. A +3.00D lens has the following prismatic effect 8 mm below the optical center:




    A. A +3.00D lens has the 2.4 base up prismatic effect 8 mm below the optical center
  38. One prism diopter _______ .

    a. Focuses parallel light rays at 40 cm
    b. Deviates a ray of light 1 cm at a distance of one meter
    c. Deviates a ray of light towards the apex
    d. Focuses parallel rays of light at one meter
    One prism diopter deviates a ray of light 1cm at a distance of one meter
  39. One of the ways of identifying a lens with minus power is to look for:




    D. One of the ways of identifying a lens with minus power is to look for objects seen through the lens seem to move in the same direction as the lens is moving.
  40. The focal length of a lens may be altered by:




    C. The focal length of a lens may be altered by changing the curvature of one surface.
  41. A +5.00 diopter lens decentered 2 mm creates ____ diopters of prism.




    A. A +5.00 diopter lens decentered 2mm creates 1.00 diopters of prism.
  42. The P.D. written on the order is mistakenly noted as 70 mm, when the actual measurement should be 66 mm. What unwanted prism would be found in the prescription if the distance prescription is O.U. -15.00D sphere?




    B. The P.D. written on the order is mistakenly noted as 70 mm, when the actual measurement should be 66 mm. The unwanted prism would be found in the prescription if the distance prescription is O.U. -15.00D sphere is 3ΔD base in each eye.
  43. A lens clock is used to measure



    C. A lens clock is used to measure base curve.
  44. Transpose the following prescription: +2.25 +1.75 X 085



    D. +4.00 -1.75 X 175
  45. Equiconcave, flat concave, and meniscus are ALL types of



    B. Equiconcave, flat concave, and meniscus are ALL types of minus lenses.
  46. Equiconvex, flat convex, and meniscus are ALL types of:



    A. Equiconvex, flat convex, and meniscus are ALL types of plus lenses.
  47. The reason for using a “best form” lens is to minimize



    C. The reason for using a "best form" lens is to minimize aberrations
  48. The angle of reflection is the angle between:



    C. The angle of reflection is the angle between the normal and the reflected ray.
  49. What is the Abbe value of crown glass?



    A. The Abbe value of crown glass is 60.
  50. Which is NOT a limitation of an executive lens?



    B. Wide field of view is NOT a limitation of an executive lens.
  51. An ultex with the segment on the front is referred to as a:



    D. An ultex lens with the segment on the front is referred to as a CX.
  52. A younger lens is often described as a:



    D. A younger lens is often described as a vanity lens.
  53. How many muscles are responsible for the movement of the eye?



    C. There are 6 muscles responsible for the movement of the eye. Superior Rectus, Inferior Rectus, Superior Oblique, Inferior Oblique, Internal Rectus, External Rectus.
  54. Which of the following makes up 90% of the corneas mass?



    D. The Stroma makes up 90% of the corneas mass.
  55. Which of the following is NOT one of the tunics of the eye?



    C. The oblique is NOT one of the tunics of the eye
  56. Which of the following are responsible for movement or night vision?



    A. The rods are responsible for movement or night vision.
  57. Which of the following are responsible for acute color vision?



    A. Cones are responsible for acute color vision.
  58. What type of Astigmatism is characterized by the following RX?
    +3.00 -1.00 X90




    C. Compound Myopic
  59. What type of Astigmatism is characterized by the following RX?
    Plano +.50 X180




    B. Simple Hyperopic
  60. What type of Astigmatism is characterized by the following RX?
    -1.00 +2.00 X45




    A. Mixed
  61. A term used to describe a lens that effectively matches surface curves and power is:
    A. Meniscus
    B. Periscopic
    C. Best Form
    D. Aspheric
    Best Form describes a lens that effictively matches surface curves and power.
  62. The base curve is described as the:



    B. The base curve is described as the single curve on the front.
  63. When dealing with plus powered lenses the rule of thimb for selecting an approximate base curve directs you to add ______ to the lens power.



    A. When dealing with plus powered lenses the rule of thimb for selecting an approximate base curve directs you to add +4 to the lens power.
  64. When dealing with minus powered lenses the rule of thumb for selecting an approximate base curve directs you to add _____ to the lens power.



    B. When dealing with minus powered lenses the rule of thumb for selecting an approximate base curve directs you to add +8 to the lens power.
  65. It is generally desirable to maintain ocular side curves between:



    B. It is generally desirable to maintain ocular side crves between -4.00 and -7.00
  66. As a plus power increases the selection of a base curve should generally:



    A. As a plus power increases the selection of a base curve should generally steepen
  67. As a minus power increases the selection of a base curve should generally:
    A. Steepen
    B. Flatten
    C. Stay the same
    D. None of the above
    Asa minus power increases the selection of a base curve should generally flatten
  68. Refers to an approximation of lens surface curvature/the curve that is marked on the lens box.



    C. Nominal curve refers to an approximation of lens surface curvature/the curve that is marked on the lens box.
  69. The approximate power of a lens as determined by a front clock reading of +2.00 and a back clock reading of -5.00 is:



    D. -3.00
  70. The approximate power of a lens as determined by a front clock reading of +8.00 and a back clock reading of -5.00 is:



    A. +3.00
  71. Which of the following is a possible symptom of exccessive base down prism?



    D. Horizontal objects seem concave
  72. An imbalance of power in the 90 degree meridian could result in the condition known as:



    C. An imbalance of power in the 90 degree could result in the condition known as anisometropia.
  73. How far does the ball drop in the drop ball test?



    C. The ball drops 50 inches in the drop ball test
  74. What is the minimum weight of the test apparatus used in the drop ball test?



    D. The minimum weight of the test apparatus used in the drop ball test is 27 pounds.
  75. Which of the following is a cutting plier?



    B. The chappel is a cutting plier
  76. Which of the following is used for nosepad adjustments?



    C. The round flat is used for nosepad adjustments.
  77. Which of the following is apt to shrink if heated?



    D. Polyamide is apt to shrink if heated.
  78. The tendency for light to bend more in the periphery of a lens than in the center is known as:



    C. The tendency for light to bend more in the periphery of a lens than in the center is known as spherical abberation
  79. How many inches are in one meter?



    C. 39.37
  80. Which of the following rays has the shortest wavelength?



    A. Violet
  81. What are the parameters of the visible spectrum?



    D. 380 nm to 750 nm
  82. An optical prism will displace a ray of light toward its _____ and will appear to displace the object viewes toward its _____.



    B. Base/Apex
  83. A plus lens reacts like two prisms:



    C. Base to Base
  84. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a minus lens?



    C. Converges
  85. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a plus lens?



    A. Weakens as it is moved away from the eye
  86. Which of the following would correct simple myopia?



    C. -1.00
  87. Which of the following is not one of the five types of astigmatism?



    D. Compound mixed. The five astigmatisms are: Simple myopic, Simple hyperopic, mixed, compound myopic, compound hyperopic.
  88. What is the radius of curvature of a one diopter surface?



    C. 530 mm
  89. A plus lens has a ____ focal point and a minus lens has a ____ focal point.



    C. Real/virtual
  90. Which of the following lenses has the longest focal length?



    C. .25 diopters
  91. Which of the following Rx's is the same as (Plano +2.00 X 180)?



    B. +2.00 -2.00 x 90
  92. The Prentice Rule is used to determine:



    A. Prismatic effect
  93. A pair of plus lenses with the optical centers ground wider than the patients actual pupillary distance will result in which of the following types of prismatic effect for the wearer:



    B. Base out
  94. A pair of minus lenses with the optical centers ground narrower than the patients actual pd will result in which of the following types of prismatic effect for the wearer:



    B. Base out
  95. The eye as an optical system generates approximately how many diopters of power?



    B. 60
  96. The cornea contributes approximately ______ diopters of refraction to the eyes optical system.



    C. 40
  97. A patient wearing 2 diopters of prism base up OD and 6 diopters base up OS experiences a total prismatic effect of:



    C. 4 Diopters Up OS
  98. Which of the following prismatic situations in opposing eyes cancel one another?



    D. Base in/base out
  99. Rx +1.00 sph OD and -1.00 sph OS. When looking away from the distance OC in a downward direction to read ______ at 10mm elow the distance OC at the reading level the patient will experience a total prismatic imbalance of:



    B. 2 Diopters
  100. A lens has a front surface power of +2.00D and a back surface power of -8.25D. The correctiv power is



    B. -6.25D
  101. What is the best base curve for a -3.75D lens?



    A. +4.00
  102. Using the prescription +2.00 -1.50 X 45, what is the power of the lens at the 90th meridian?



    C. +1.25
  103. How much cylinder power is in effect at the specified axis?



    A. 0%
  104. How much cylinder power is in effect 90 degrees away from the specified axis?



    A. 100%
  105. A plus lens



    D. Converges Light
  106. A minus lens



    A. Is thin in the center
  107. Transpose the following prescription: -0.75 +3.00 X 180



    D. +2.25 -3.00 X 090
  108. Using the prescription -1.00 -1.50 X 90, what is the power of the lens at the 180th meridian?



    D. -2.50
  109. What is the best base curve for a +2.50D lens?



    B. +8.00
  110. Eyeglass prescription powers are written in _________.



    C. Diopters
  111. Axis is ____________.



    A. a notation of position
  112. To switch between minus and plus cylinder forms we use _____.



    A. cylinfer conversion
  113. Plus lenses ________ and minus lenses ________.



    B. Magnify, minify
  114. The spherical equivalent of the lens +1.00 +2.50 x 90 is:



    A. +2.25D
  115. If the prescription is O.D. +1.00 +2.50 x 45, what would be the total power at axis 90?



    D. +2.25D
  116. Which of the following lenses has no power in the 90° meridian?



    D. +1.00 -2.00 X 045
  117. Given an Rx with all specifications equal but ground in material of different indices, which set of lenses will be the thinnest?



    A. Polycarbonate
  118. A lens having one concave and one convex surface is called a __________ lens.



    B. Meniscus
  119. The dioptric difference between the lenses for the prescription of O.D. +2.00 sph, O.S. +0.50 sph would be:



    D. 1.50D
  120. Astigmatism is corrected by a lens having:



    D. Cylinder power
  121. Given the prescription +1.00 +1.00 axis 90, how much of the +1.00 cylinder is in effect at axis 90 (the vertical meridian of the lens)?



    B. 0%
  122. A myope always has in his or her prescription the following kind of power:



    C. Minus Power
  123. A hyperope always has in his or her prescription the following power:



    C. Plus Power
  124. If a +10D lens is moved 5 mm nearer the eye, it will be about:



    C. 0.50D weaker plus
  125. The relationship of front and back curvatures on a spectacle lens will determine:



    A. Refractive power
  126. Which material is known to have the best optical properties?



    B. Crown Glass
  127. Which material is known for its superior impact resistance?



    B. Polycarbonate
  128. AR coatings cause light incident upon the lens to be



    B. Transmitted
  129. What lens treatment best reduces glare from water and road surfaces?



    A. Polarized
  130. Which of the following lens materials requires a UV coating to protect from ultraviolet radiation?



    C. Plastic
  131. Multifocal lenses are generally used to correct for:



    A. Presbyopia
  132. The process used to reduce the bottom thickness of a progressive lens is called



    A. Prism thinning
  133. A slab off is used to compensate for differences in induced prism between the eyes caused by



    A. Anisometropia
  134. Cataract surgery removes the crystalline lens of the eye causing the patient to lose the ability to focus. This condition is known as



    C. Aphakic
  135. The refractive index of CR-39 is:



    D. 1.498
  136. "Plastic" lenses are made of a hard resin material known as:



    A. CR-39
  137. It is "generally" accepted procedure to fit the top of the trifocal segment to the:



    D. Bottom edge of the pupil
  138. Multifocal height is usually determined by measuring from the:



    A. Lower egde of the lens
  139. Trifocals are most generally prescribed when the patient is:



    D. An advanced presbyope
  140. Bifocals are used to correct for a condition called:



    C. Presbyopia
  141. Which one of the following lens materials is "generally" thought to provide the best impact resistance for children's eyewear?



    C. Polycarbonate
  142. What is aphakia?



    C. The absence of the crystalline lens
  143. Patient pupillary distances (PD’s) are taken in two ways ____.



    D. monocularly and binocularly
  144. A _________ PD is given as one number.



    B. Binocular
  145. What does the OC in OC height stand for?



    D. Optical Center
  146. In what year did the Optical Manufacturers Association adopt the Boxing System to provide a standard for frame and lens measurements?



    C. 1962
  147. Which of the following is not an attribute of Monel?



    C. Hypo-allergenic
  148. The “A” measurement of a lens is:



    A. The horizontal distace between the vertical sides of the box
  149. Which is an advantage of a Titanium frame?



    C. 100% corrosion resistant
  150. For cosmetic reasons, it is best to pick a frame that:



    D. Has a frame PD that matches the patients
  151. There are two kinds of frame materials ___ and ____.



    C. Metals, plastics
  152. There are three common types of lens mountings:



    B. Bevel-Bezel, Semi-Rimless, Three Piece
  153. Frames are measured using the following Boxing System points:



    D. A, B, DBL, ED
  154. Outward inclination of the bottom of the framed lenses is called _______ tilt.



    B. Retroscopic
  155. The type of bridge on a plastic frame designed to rest entirely on nose pads is the _______ .



    C. Keyhole
  156. If the eyewires touch the cheeks, the adjustment to take care of this condition would be:



    B. Decrease pantoscopic tilt
  157. If the top of the front is pressing against the brow, the adjustment to correct the condition would be:



    B. Lengthen the pad arms
  158. When adjusting the frame, the front can be lowered by using the following adjustment:
    a. Using more pantoscopic tilt
    b. By bringing the pads closer together c. By bending the pad arms down
    d. By spreading the pads further apart
    D. By spreading the pads further apart
  159. To relieve excessive pressure causing soreness at the back edge of the nose pads, a good adjustment would be:



    D. Flare pads out more (spread back edge apart more)
  160. If the pad arms are bent up and the pads realigned, this adjustment will:



    A. Drop the front
  161. If the right temple is angled down, this adjustment will:



    C. Raise the right side of the front
  162. If the pad arms are lengthened, this adjustment will:



    D. Push the front out more
  163. If the pads are brought closer together, this adjustment will.



    D. Raise the front
  164. If the right temple is angled out, this adjustment will:



    D. Bring the right side of the front toward the right eye
  165. To relieve tension on both ears, a good adjustment would be to:



    A. Lengthen both temples
  166. When a frame is said to have pantoscopic tilt, the following condition is meant:



    D. The bottoms of the eyewires are in closer that the top.
  167. When a frame is said to have retroscopic tilt, the following condition is meant:



    B. The bottoms of the eyewires are out further than the top
  168. "Bowing" temples is an expression referring to:



    C. Curving temples around the head
  169. To adjust the frame so it sits lower on the face, bend the pad arms _________ .



    C. further apart
  170. Internal lens stress can be detected using a



    D. Polariscope
  171. A lensometer is used for measuring



    D. All of the above
  172. Prism is read in lensometer using the



    D. Reticle
  173. Vertex distance is measured using a



    A. Distometer
  174. A lensomter reticle is divided in quadrants to measure the



    B. Direction of the prism
  175. Lens calipers are commonly used to measure:



    D. Lens thickness
  176. A pupillometer is used to measure the:



    C. Interpupillary distance
  177. The private agency whose function is to set commercial and industry standards is



    A. ANSI
  178. The ANSI document covering ophthalmic standards



    A. Z80
  179. Which of the following categories of lenses are not exempt from drop ball testing?



    B. Aspheric
  180. According to ANSI standards, a lens with 0.50 D of cylinder must have an axis within



    B. 7 degrees
  181. The governmental agency established for the purpose of reducing deaths, injury, and illness in the workplace is



    D. OSHA
  182. The ASTM institute sets standards for which of the following ophthalmic products:



    B. Sports Eyewear
  183. In drop ball testing a ____ ball is dropped from ____ on to the front surface of a lens.



    B. 5/8 in, 50 in
  184. Duty to warn:



    A. Requires opticians to warn patients of significant risks in certain aspects of lenses and frames.
  185. Given an Rx of: Plano +1.00 x 090, when ground, the resulting lens is prescribed for which of the following conditions?



    A. Simple hyperopic astigmatism
  186. If the pupillary distance is measured while the patient is focusing on a point 16 inches in front of his eyes, the P.D. measured is known as the _______ P.D.



    C. Near
  187. The optical cross is a graphic representation used to show the _________ of a lens.



    A. Meridian powers
  188. You are fitting a patient with a Titan-10 frame, 24 DBL, 44 eye size, and 5V2 inch skull temples. The distance P.D. is only 62 mm. If by some unfortunate error the lenses are NOT decentered at all, how much prism is created in each eye? Rx O.U.-2.25-1.50x45



    A. 0.9 Δ B.I.
  189. A characteristic most single vision CR-39 lens series have in common is:



    B. Minus cylinder form
  190. As the pantoscopic angle is increased:


    A. The spherical equivalent is increased
  191. A lens of -2.00 +2.00 x 90 power corrects _______ .



    D. Simple myopic astigmatism
  192. The vertical difference in power between lenses in the following Rx is: O.D.-1.00 +0.50 x 045 O.S. -1.00 +0.50 x 090



    B. 0.25D sph
  193. A ptosis crutch is used to give support to:



    C. Upper lid
  194. A patient comes in with a prescription requiring a large amount of plus power (+12.50 diopters) and with a notation Vertex Distance 12 mm. You find that when fitted with a frame, the lens will set 14 mm from his eye. What change will be necessary in the lens to be ordered?



    D. Less plus sphere power
  195. If the lenses of a patient wearing -15.00 spheres are brought closer to his/her eyes, what if any effect will this have on the effective power?



    B. Increase minus power effect
  196. Most commonly, opticians use a Geneva lens measure to:



    A. Measure lens base curve
Author
juli31986
ID
36723
Card Set
American Board of Opticianry License Test
Description
Sample questions for the ABO test
Updated