1. because cells are 70% water, most of the reactions in the body happen
    in aqueous solutions
  2. reactions in cells happen at a very slow rate and use
    enzymes to speed them up to where they need to be
  3. catabolism
    • the breaking down of elements into sub units
    • uses energy
  4. anabolism
    • the putting together of small molecules to one large one
    • a gain in energy (endothermic)
  5. enzymes
    proteins that funcion as biological catalysts and permit reactions to occur rapidly at normal body temperature
  6. substrate
    substance an enzyme acts on
  7. What do enzymes do?
    • lower activation energy in a reaction
    • facilitate molecular interactions (bring them closer together)
  8. Process of an enzyme action
    • the substrate approaches the active site on the enzyme
    • the substrate binds to the active site (very specific like key)
    • enzyme breaks covalent bonds and monomers release via hydrolysis
  9. Key fact of enzymes
    • they remain unchanged in the reaction and are ready to repeat the process
    • they work very fast
    • they can change shape easily with conformation change
  10. metabolic pathways
    chain of reactions with each step usually catalyzed by a different enzyme
  11. How are metabolic pathways regulated
    • activation or deactivation of the enzyme
    • cells can turn on or off
  12. cofactors
    • inorganic partner of enzyme
    • binds to enzyme and induces change in its shape, which activates the active site
  13. coenzymes
    orgainc cofactors
  14. Nucleotides
    • nitrogenous base
    • sugar
    • phosphate group
  15. most common nucleotide
    • ATP
    • adenine ribose phosphate
  16. ATP
    • the body's most important energy transfer molecule and cells cant survive without
    • stores energy that is gained from exergonic reactions
  17. ATP energy
    holds energy in covalent bonds in the 2 and 3 bond of phosphates
  18. phosphorylation
    • addition of free phosphate group to another molecule
    • carried out by kinases
    • constantly making ATP in body
  19. glycolysis
    the transformation of glucose (6C) to pyruvic acid 2 (3C) and 2 ATP formed
  20. anaerobic respiration
    transition of pyruvic acid to lactic acid
  21. aerobic respiration
    • use of oxygen to convert pyruvic acid to ATP and CO2 and H2O
    • forms 36 ATP molecules
  22. Where is ATP made?
    in the mitochondria
  23. enzyme regualtions
    the cell controls how many molecules each enzyme makes
  24. alosteric control
    • when a molecule other than one of the substrate binds to an enzyme at a special regulatory site outside the active site
    • this caused a change in conformation of the enzyme and it not to function
  25. feedback inhibition
    something (inhibitor) binds to active site to activate site or cause no reaction
  26. protein phosphorylation
    • protein won't function with phosphate addition
    • there are active and inactive forms of enzymes
  27. negative regulation
    prevents an enzyme from acting and stops the reaction
  28. positive regulation
    an enzyme's activity is stimulated by a regulatory molecule and the reactions speeds up
  29. active site
    region of an enzyme surface to which a substrate molecule binds in order to undergo a catalyzed reaction
  30. carbohydrate metabolism
    all ozidative carbohydrate consumption is a matter of glucose catabolism or break down to CO2 and H2O
  31. What is the function of a carbohydrate metabolism reaction?
    • to transfer energy from glucose to ATP
    • not to produce CO2 and water
  32. What are the 2 steps of glycolysis
    • 1-energy investment phase where 2xATP are converted to 2xADP
    • 2-energy generation where 4ADP are converted to 2xATP and 2xNAD+ are converted to NADH
  33. glucose catabolism
    a series of small steps, each controlled by a separate enzyme in which energy is released in small managable amounts and as much as possible is transferred to ATP and the rest is released as heat
  34. What 3 major pathways make ATP
    • glycolysis
    • anaerobic respiration
    • aerobic respiration
  35. coenzymes
    • remove electrons from intermediate compounds
    • enzymes transfer the H enzymes to coenzymes
    • coenzymes donate H later in reaction
    • these are helpers that enzymes NEED
  36. coenzyme examples
    • NAD+
    • NAD+ +2H+ = NADH + H+

    • FAD
    • FAD + 2H+ = FADH2
  37. mitochondria
    • organelles specialized for synthesizing APT
    • the powerhouses of the cell
  38. What are the components of the mitochondria
    the cristae and the matrix
  39. mitochondria matrix
    • contains ribosomes, enzymes for ATP
    • the space between cristae
  40. cristae
    • inner membrane that has folds
    • (mitochondria has 2 membranes)
  41. Need to know the chart of the ATP production!
  42. metabolism is highly organized
    many cells have more of certian traits that others based on the function
  43. molecules are comprised of
  44. organelles are comprised of
  45. cells are composed of
  46. tissues are composed of
  47. organs are composed of
  48. organ systems are composed of
  49. organisms are composed of
    organ systems
  50. organism
    a single, complete individual
  51. organ system
    human body is made of 11 organ systems
  52. organ
    structure composed of 2 or more tissue types that work together and carry out particular function
  53. tissue
    a mass of similar cells and cell products that form discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function
  54. cells
    the smallest unit of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life
  55. cytology
    the study of cells and organelles
  56. organelles
    microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual function
  57. molecules
    make up organelles and other cellular components
  58. atoms
    the smallest particles with unique chemical identities
  59. reductionism
    the theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components
  60. holsim
    there are emergent properties of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of the separate parts
  61. exploratory surgery
    open body and take a look inside
  62. medical imaging
    viewing the inside of the body without surgery
  63. radiology
    branch of medicine converned with imaging
  64. gross anatomy
    study of structures that can be seen with the naked eye
  65. histology
    examination of cells with microscope
  66. ultrastructure
    the molecular detail seen in electron microscope
  67. histopathology
    microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease
  68. anatomical variation
    not 2 humans are exactly alike, there are variations in the types of organs and the organ locations
  69. neurophysiology
    physiology of nervous system
  70. endocrinology
    physiology of hormones
  71. pathophysiology
    mechanisms of disease
  72. comparative physiology
    limitations on human experimentation like animal testing
  73. homeostasis
    the body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and thereby maintaining relatively stable internal conditions
  74. claude bernard
    discovered constant internal conditions regardless of external conditions
  75. walter cannon
    coined the term homeostasis
  76. loss of homeostasis causes
    illness or death, you need a state of balance
  77. what are the 3 components of a feedback loop
    • receptors-sense changes in the body
    • control center-make a decision and direct response
    • effector-carries out the final corrective action to restore homeostasis
  78. Negative feedback loop
    • blood pressure
    • body temperature
  79. positive feedback loop
    self amplifying cycle and a normal way of producing rapid changes (blood clotting, child birth, fever, protein digestion)
Card Set
lecture 2