1. What are the 4 categories of carbon compounds in living organisms?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • nucleotides and nucleic acids
  2. Molecules
    chemical particles composed of 2 or more atoms united in a chemical bond
  3. Compounds
    molecules composed of 2 or more different elements
  4. molecular formula
    identifies consitiuent elements and shows how many of each are present
  5. Non polar covalent bonds
    • shared electrons spent approximately equal time around each nucleus
    • strongest of bonds
  6. polar covalent
    shared electrons spend more time orbiting one nucleus than the other
  7. classes of chemical reaction
    • decomposition
    • synthesis
    • exchange
  8. reversible reaction
    • can go either way and law of mass action determines direction
    • important for stability
  9. oxidation
    loss of electrons (electron acceptor is oxidizing agent)
  10. reduction
    • gain of electrons
    • molecule that donates electrons is the reducing agent
  11. What is the basis for chemical reactions
    • molecular motion and collisions (higher collisions means more reactions)
    • concentrations (rate increases with more concentration)
    • temperature (rate increases with increase in temp)
    • catalysts (addition increases reaction rates)
    • enzymes
  12. catalysts
    • -speed up reactions without permanent change to itself
    • -holds reactant molecules in correct orientation
    • -catalyst not permanently consumed or changed by the reaction
  13. Acid
    • proton donor
    • releases H+ in water
  14. Base
    • proton acceptor
    • releases OH- in water
  15. pH
    a measure of the amount of H+ in a solution
  16. pH>7
    basic solution
  17. pH<7
    acidic solution
  18. normal pH of the blood
  19. pH<7.33
  20. pH>7.45

    very important to keep pH balance in body!
  21. Electrolytes
    salts that ionize in water and form solutions capable of conducting an electric current
  22. What is the importance of electrolytes?
    • chemical reactivity
    • osmosis effect (water movement)
    • electrical effects on nerves and muscle tissues
  23. What is the role of electrolytes
    they are important for their chemical and physical effects on the body and if not in balance there can be muscle cramps or cardiac arrest
  24. How are electrolytes measured?
    in equivalents (Eq)
  25. How many mEq are present in Ca+2
  26. Macromolecules
    very large organic molecules (DNA, proteins)
  27. polymers
    molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunits
  28. monomers
    identical or similar sub units
  29. carbohydrates
    hydrated carbon and oxygen molecules (hydrophobic)
  30. Monosaccharides
    • simplest sugars
    • glucose, glactose, fructose
  31. disaccharides
    • sugar molecules composed of 2 monosaccharides
    • sucrose, lactose, maltose
  32. polsaccharides
    • long chains of monosaccharides
    • glycogen, starch, cellulose
  33. lipids
    • hydrophobic molecule with high ration of hydrogen to oxygen
    • store energy
  34. fatty acid
    • a type of lipid that has polar group on one end and non polar group on the other end
    • 4-24 carbon atoms
  35. saturated
    • carbon atoms saturated with hydrogen
    • solid at room temp
  36. unsaturated
    • contains c=c bonds
    • liquid at room temp
  37. polyunsaturated
    many c=c bonds
  38. essential fatty acid
    obtained from diet, your body can't synthesize
  39. tryglycerides
    • 3 fatty acids covalently bonded to 3 carbon alcohol molecules
    • formed by dehydration synthesis
  40. tryglycerides at room temp called liquid oils
  41. when tryglycerides are at room temperature and solid
    saturated fats
  42. What is the primary function of tryglycerides
    • energy storage
    • insulation
    • shock absorption
  43. phospholipids
    a tryglyceride with a phosphate group in place of one fatty acid tail
  44. key characteristic of phospholipids
    amphiphillic-has hydropillic head and hydrophobic tail
  45. Steroid
    lipid with 17 of its carbon atoms in 4 rings
  46. cholesterol
    parent steriod form which other steroids are synthesized
  47. HDL
    • high density lipoprotein
    • the good cholesterol
  48. LDL
    • low density lipoprotein
    • the bad cholesterol
  49. What does HDL do in the body?
    takes the fat from the blood and takes it to the liver to break it down
  50. eicosanoids
    • 20 carbon compound that comes from a fatty acid
    • a hormone like chemical
  51. polymerization
    joining of monomers to form polymers
  52. dehydration systhesis
    • how living cells form polymers
    • removal of water
  53. hydrolysis
    • the addition of water to a molecule/reaction
    • forms 2 separate monomers or separates polymers
  54. peptide
    any molecule comosed of 2 or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds
  55. peptide bond
    • joins the amino group of one amino acid to the carbozyl group of the next
    • uses dehydration systhesis
  56. proteins
    have more than 50 amino acids
  57. primary structure
    protein sequence of amino acids which is encoded in the genes
  58. secondary structure
    • coiled or folding shape held together by hydrogen bonds
    • hydrogen bonds between H and O
    • most common-a helix and b sheets
  59. tertiary structures
    further bending and folding of proteins into globular and fibrous proteins
  60. Globular protein
    compact tertiary structure well suited for proteins embedded in the cell membrane and proteins that must move around freely
  61. fibrous protein
    slender filaments better suited for roles as in muscle contraction and strengthening the skin
  62. quaternary structures
    the folding and binding of 2 or more proteins
  63. The structure of a protein is close associated with its
  64. conformation
    • the unique 3D shape of a protein
    • ability of reversible change in conformation is important (enzymes for ex)
  65. denaturation
    extreme conformational change that destroys function of protein
  66. What are the causes of denaturation
    extreme heat or pH
  67. Protein structure-keratin
    its a tough structural protein that gives strength to hair, nails, and skin surface
  68. Protein function-structure
    collagen is a durable protein that is in deep layers of skin, bone, cartilage and teeth
  69. protein communication
    • some hormones and other cell-cell interactions
    • there are receptors which signal molecules to bind
  70. ligand
    any hormone or molecule that reversibly bonds to a protein
  71. protein membrane transport
    channels in the cell membrane govern what passes through
  72. carrier proteins
    transport solute particles to other side of membrane
  73. proteins are used for recoginition and protections
    such as immune recoginition, antibodies, clotting proteins
  74. proteins are used for movement-motor proteins
    are molecules with the ability to change shape repeatedly
  75. cells are used for cell adhesion
    • proteins bind together
    • immune cells to bind to cancer cells
    • keep tissues from falling apart
  76. purines
    • double ring
    • adenine
    • guanine
  77. pyrimidines
    • single ring
    • cystine
    • thymine
    • uracil
Card Set
lecture 1