Midterm Exam

  1. (Introduction)

    What is anatomy?
    normal structure/ parts of the body
  2. (Introduction)

    What is physiology?
    study of fucntions of the body
  3. (Introduction)

    What is the study of diseases?
  4. (Introduction)

    What is a disease?
    anything that disrupts or upsets the normal structure or function of the body
  5. (Body Organization)

    List the levels of structure and describe each.
    • 1st Cell:
    • basic unit of life and the building blocks of life

    • 2nd Tissue:
    • group of cells

    • 3rd Organ:
    • group of tissues

    • 4th Organ System:
    • group of organs

    • 5th Organism:
    • group of organ systems
  6. (Body Organization)

    List the 10 Body Systems
    • 1. Integumentary
    • 2. Skeletal
    • 3. Muscular
    • 4. Respiratory
    • 5. Digestive
    • 6. Urinary
    • 7. Cardiovascular/Lymphatic
    • 8. Endocrine
    • 9. Nervous
    • 10. Reproductive
  7. (Body Processes)

    What is a body process called? Define.
    Metabolism. The break down and building up of body materials; all the changes that food will undergo in the body
  8. (Body Processes)

    List and define the two types of body processes.
    1. Catabolism: breakdown of food

    2. Anabolism: buidling up of body materials; the product of breakdown is used to manufacture materials needed for growth, structure, and function
  9. (Body Processes)

    What is ATP?
    ATP is adenosinetriphosphate. It is the energy compound in the cell.
  10. (Body Fluids)

    What is the purpose of body fluids?
    transfer materials to and from the cell
  11. (Body Fluids)

    What percentage of the body is made up of body fluids?
    60 percent
  12. (Body Fluids)

    What are fluids outside the cell called?
    Extracellular Fluids (ECF)
  13. (Body Fluids)

    What are intracellular fluids (ICF)?
    fluids inside the cell
  14. (Body Fluids)

    What is osmosis?
    fluid moving from an area of less conc. to an area of greater conc.
  15. (Body Fluids)

    What is diffusion?
    fluid moving from an area of greater conc. to an area of less conc.
  16. (Body Fluids)

    What is homeostasis?
    state of balance in the internal environment
  17. (Body Directions)

    When the body is upright with the palms facing forward what is this called?
    normal anatomical position
  18. (Body Directions)

    What is front in medical terms?
    ventral and anterior
  19. (Body Directions)

    What is back in medical terms?
    dorsal and posterior
  20. (Body Directions)

    What is lateral?
    away from the middle
  21. (Body Directions)

    What is median?
    midline or middle
  22. (Body Directions)

    What is the position of the nose on the body?
  23. (Body Directions)

    What is medial?
    towards the middle
  24. (Body Directions)

    What is the position of the eyes on the face?
  25. (Body Directions)

    What is superior?
  26. (Body Directions)

    What position is the mouth to the chin?
    the mouth is superior to the chin
  27. (Body Directions)

    What is inferior?
  28. (Body Directions)

    What position is the mouth to the nose?
    the mouth is inferior to the nose
  29. (Body Directions)

    What is a craniad position?
    towards the head
  30. (Body Directions)

    When a part of the body is towards the tail bone what is the called?
  31. (Body Directions)

    What is proximal?
    close to origin
  32. (Body Directions)

    What is the opposite of proximal?
    distal (away from origin)
  33. (Body Directions)

    The wrist is what to the fingers?
  34. (Body Directions)

    The wrist is what to the elbow?
  35. (Body Places of Division)

    When the body is divided from the front to the back into the left and right what is this called?
    sagittal plane
  36. (Body Places of Division)

    When the body is divided right down the middle what is this called?
    Mid-Sagittal Plane
  37. (Body Places of Division)

    When the body is divided into anterior and posterior what is this called?
    frontal/coronal plane
  38. (Body Places of Division)

    What is the transversal plane?
    When the body is divided into the superior and internal parts
  39. (Body Cavities)

    List and describe the two major cavities in the body?
    • dorsal cavity
    • contains the 1cranial cavity (brain) and the 2spinal cavity (spinal cord)

    • ventral cavity
    • contains the 1thoracic cavity, 2abdominal cavity and 3pelvic cavity
  40. (Body Cavities)

    What is in the thoracic cavity?
    heart, lungs, blood vessels etc.
  41. (Body Cavities)

    What is in the abdominal cavity?
    liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, small intestines and kidneys
  42. (Body Cavities)

    What is in the pelvic cavity?
    colon, reproductive organs and urinary bladder
  43. (Body Cavities)

    What is the diaphragm?
    flat muscle that divides the thorax and the abdomen
  44. (Regions of the Abdomen)

    How many regions are there in the abdomen?
  45. (Regions of the Abdomen)

    What are the three big regions of the abdomen and what do they contain?
    • 1. epigastic (right and left chondriac)
    • 2. umbillical (right and left lumbar)
    • 3. hypogastrics region (right and left iliac)
  46. (Integumentary System)

    List and describe the three layers that make up the skin
    • Epidermis:
    • outermost layer, no blood vessels, no nerve endings and contains melanocytes

    • Dermis:
    • true skin, rich in blood supply, many sensory receptors, hair follicles and glands

    • Subcantaneous:
    • adipose (fatty) layer, cushions and insulates.
  47. (Integumentary System)

    What is the function of the skin?
    protection, helps regulate body temperature, helps excrete wastes and manufactures vitamin D
  48. (Skeletal System)

    What is the function of the skeletal system?
    support/framework, assists in movement, manufactures red, white, etc. blood cells, and produces Ca
  49. (Skeletal System)

    Describe the three bone cells that are involved in bone development
    • osteoblasts:
    • young bone cells that initiate the development

    • osteocytes:
    • mature bones cells that maintain the bone formed from osteoblasts embedded in the bone

    • osteoclasts:
    • destroyer cells that resorb the bone
  50. (Skeletal System)

    What are the two kinds of bone tissue?
    • compact bone tissue:
    • found in the disphysisi of a long bone

    • spongy bone tissue:
    • found in the epiphysis of the long bones or flat bones
  51. (Skeletal System)

    What are the three parts that make up the structure of the bone?
    • epiphysis:
    • superior and inferior part of the bone

    • shaft:
    • median part of the bone

  52. (Skeletal System)

    Name the three parts that provides a bone's covering.
    • periosteum:
    • fibrous covering of the outside of the bone

    • endosteum:
    • lines the medullary cavity inside

    • marrow:
    • manufactures red blood cells
  53. (Skeletal System)

    Name the five different parts of the vertebrae. (from the top)
    cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal
  54. (Skeletal System)

    Name the 10 different types of bone movement.
    • flexion
    • extension
    • adduction
    • abduction
    • rotation
    • circumduction
    • pronation
    • supination
    • eversion
    • inversion
  55. (Muscular System)

    What is the function of the muscular system?
  56. (Muscular System)

    Name the three types of muscles.
    • voluntary muscles/skeletal muscle:
    • attached to the bones and under concious control

    • involuntary/smooth muscles/viscernal muscle:
    • found in digestive tract and not under concious control

    • cardiac muscle (myocardium):
    • heart muscle
  57. (Muscular System)

    Name the four general properties of muscles
    • excitibility/irritability:
    • reacts to electrical impulse

    • conductivity:
    • receive and generate electrical impulse

    • automaticity:
    • cardiac muscle, generates electrical impulses w/o external nervous stimulate
Card Set
Midterm Exam
Mid-Term Exam