1. Common misconceptions about listening
    • That listening and hearing are the same thing
    • Listening is not a natural process
    • All listeners do not receive the same message
  2. Hearing
    Process by which sound waves strike the ear drum and cause vibrations which are then transmitted to the brain
  3. Listening
    When the brain reconstructs the electrochemical impulses into representation of the original sound then gives them meaning
  4. Factors in receiving a message
    • Physiological
    • Social roles
    • Cultural backgrounds
    • personal interests
    • needs can shape and distort raw data into uniquely different messages
  5. Types of ineffective listening
    • Pseudo-listening
    • Selective listening
    • defensive listening
    • Ambushing
    • Insulated listeing
    • Insensitive listening
    • Stage hogging
  6. Pseudolistening
    imitation of real listening. Appearance of being attentive
  7. Selective listening
    responding only to a speaker's remarks that interest them
  8. Defensive listening
    take innocent comments as personal attacks
  9. Ambushing
    Listening carefully but only collecting information to attack the speaker
  10. Insulated listening
    Avoiding certain topics, or fail to acknowledge certain ones
  11. Insensitive listening
    Aren't able to look beyond words and behaviors to understand hidden messages
  12. Stage Hogging
    turning the topic ofconversation to themselves instead of showing interest in the speaker
  13. 4 types of personal listening styles
    • Content oriented- QUALITY
    • People oriented- POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPS
    • Action oriented- TASK AT HAND, QUICKLY RESOLVE
    • Time oriented- EFFICIENCY
  14. Listening challenges
    • message overload
    • rapid thought
    • psychological noise
    • physiological noise
    • hearing problems
    • faulty assumptions
    • talking has more advantages
    • cultural differences
    • media influences
  15. Informational listening
    • An approach used when you want to understand the other person
    • ---have a constructive attitude
    • ---skills
    • =======no premature judgement, separate message from speaker, be opportunistic, look for key ideas, ask questions, paraphrase, take notes.
  16. Critical listening
    • Approach used to judge the quality of a message and decide whether to accept or reject it.
    • ---Non-hostile attitude
    • =====Skills: listen for information before evaluating, evaluate speaker's credibility, examine speaker's evidence and reasoning, emotional appeals
  17. Listening as social support
    • Goal is to be supportive or help the speaker solve a problem
    • ---Non-judgemental attidude
    • ===Skills: advising, judging, analyzing, questioning, comforting, prompting, reflecting
  18. to figure out best helping style, evaluate:
    • 1) the situation
    • 2) the other person
    • 3) own strengths and weaknesses
  19. Ogden and Richards triangle for meaning
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  20. Dr. Fox hypothesis
    An apparently legitimate speaker who utters and unintelligable message will be judged competent by an audience in the speaker's area of apparent expertise. When a message is wrapped in high-level professional jargon, the meaning of the message was judged as important information.
Card Set
Chapter 4 review