SO 300

  1. a. Considered in light of biological
    aspects of a person, involving characteristics which differentiate females from
    males by chromosomal, anatomical, reproductive, hormonal and other
    physiological characteristics.
  2. a. Involves those social, cultural, and
    psychological aspects linked to males and females through particular social
  3. a. Stereotypes that describe beliefs
    about what the typical woman and man are like.
    • 1.
    • Descriptive
    • stereotypes
  4. Has
    come to mean behaviors determined by biological sex, such as bearing and
    nursing children, etc
    • 1.
    • Sex
    • role
  5. a. Has come to mean entirely social
    created expectations of masculine and feminine behavior. These expectations are
    initiated and perpetuated by the institutions and values of a particular
    Gender Role
  6. a. Stereotypes about what women and men should
    be like.
    • 1.
    • Prescriptive
    • stereotypes
  7. a. Categories that society places it
    members into that determine how they will be defined and treated.
    • 1.
    • Status
  8. a. A status you are born with.
    • 1.
    • Ascribed
    • status
  9. a. The use of male behavior as the norm
    against which to measure females.
    • 1.
    • Androcentric
    • norms
  10. a. A status you acquire.
    • 1.
    • Achieved
    • status
  11. a. One which will affect almost every
    aspect of our lives.
    • 1.
    • Master
    • status
  12. a. The tendency to view heterosexuality
    as the norm and to ignore or render invisible the alternatives of homosexuality
    and bisexuality.
    • 1.
    • Heterosexism
  13. a. A system of ranking social statuses.
    Occurs when system becomes structured or institutionalized.
    • 1.
    • Social
    • stratification
  14. Rate of Illness
    Morbidity Rate
  15. a. Hatred of women.
    • 1.
    • Misogyny
  16. a. Number of deaths per 1000 population.
    • 1.
    • Mortality
    • rate
  17. The division of a species into two seperate sexes, male and female.
    • 1.
    • Sexual
    • diphormism
  18. a. An explanation. Formal theories
    consist of sets of logically interrelated propositions which seek to explain a
    group of facts, phenomena, or an entire class of empirical events.
    • 1.
    • Theory
  19. a. Spontaneous behavior from ongoing
    content of experience.
    • 1.
    • Process
    • oriented role
  20. a. Associated with femininity. Women –
    inside family, tension management in family, socialization of children.
    • 1.
    • Expressive
    • role
  21. a. Associated with masculinity. Men –
    outside family, occupational world, adaptation of society.
    • 1.
    • Instrumental
    • role
  22. behavior that is shaped by norms and expectations of others based on role.
    • 1.
    • Role
    • oriented behavior
  23. a. Exhibiting both female and male
  24. a. Cognitive structure, a network of
    associations or set of interrelated ideas.
    • 1.
    • Schema
  25. a. Socially shared beliefs that certain
    qualities can be assigned to individuals based on their sex.
    • 1.
    • Sex
    • stereotypes
  26. a. An individual’s private experience of
    the self as female or male.
    • 1.
    • Gender
    • identity
  27. a. An understanding that a person’s
    gender is fixed and cannot be changed or altered by a change in hairstyle,
    dress, or name. Achieved by a child
    between ages 3 and 5.
    • 1.
    • Gender
    • constancy
  28. a. Interpreting observations of another
    culture in terms of our own.
  29. a. Difficulty conforming to certain
    gender roles because such roles are often contradictory and inconsistent.
    • 1.
    • Gender
    • role strain
  30. a. The variable that is measured in an
    experiment. Depends on the independent.
    • 1.
    • Dependent
    • variable
  31. a. A stage at which boys develop an
    intense attachment to their mother and begin seeing father as a rival.
    • 1.
    • Oedipus
    • complex
  32. a. A stage at which girls develop
    intense attachment to their father and see mother as a rival.
    • 1.
    • Electra
    • complex
  33. a. Variable that is manipulated in an
    • 1.
    • Independent
    • variable
  34. a. A negative evaluation of a person
    because they belong to a certain group.
    • 1.
    • Prejudice
  35. a. Prejudice based on a person’s sex.
  36. Describe the ideas by Parsons and Bales of role traits for males and females.
    1. There is less disruption and competition, more harmony and stability, when spouses assume complimentary roles.

    2. Example - Husband takes on instrumental role and wife takes on expressive role.

    3. When deviation occurs or when they overlap to a great extent, it causes disequilibrium in the family.
  37. What are the four differences that Maccoby and Jacklin say exist between men and women?
    • 1. females are better at verbal ability
    • 2. males are better at math after adolescence
    • 3. males better at visual spatial ability
    • 4. males tend to be more aggressive
  38. What adjectives do we associate with males?
    • aggressive
    • assertive
    • confident
    • courageous
    • daring
  39. What adjectives do we associate to females?
    • affectionate
    • appreciative
    • dependent
    • emotional
    • gentle
  40. What has research found in relation to the average individual "fitting" into roles.
    Men and women may not differ much from each other.

    Differences exist more in myth than in fact.
  41. Functionalism on gender roles?
    Men and women taking on different roles was more useful in preindustrial societies.
  42. Conflict theory on gender roles?
    society is a stage where struggles for power and dominance are acted out.

    After the advent of capitalism, a woman's domestic labor was no longer worth the same as a man's work.
  43. Who applied conflict theory to the family?
    Frederick Engels
  44. Psychoanalytic theory on gender roles?
    • Sigmund Freud - first theory of human personality to assign a central role to sexuality.
    • Id, Ego, Superego
  45. Social role theory on gender roles?
    Men and women are expected to have the qualities that fit them for the tasks they normally carry out. This behavior is learned through socialization.
  46. Social learning theory on gender roles?
    A child develops both gender identity and gender role through a learning process that involves modeling, imitation, and reinforcment.
  47. Schema theory on gender roles?
    Individual difference in reliance on the gender schema stem from differences in the degree to which the gender dichotomy is emphasized during socialization.
  48. What is W. I. Thomas' theorum?
    A situation defined as real is real in it's consequences.
  49. Liberal feminism
    focuses on reform rather than extreme efforts.
  50. Radical feminism
    focus on social structures of male dominance over women in search of explanations.
  51. Socialist feminism
    combine gender with other social categories such as race and class that define the groups that have power and those that are powerless.
  52. How would Erving Goffman explain gender role diversity?
    People assume various roles as if on stage giving a performance. Dramaturgy!
  53. Strengths and weaknesses of Case History?
    • S - provides richness of detail
    • W - researcher bias can influence outcomes
  54. Strengths and weaknesses of Phenomenological method?
    • Trys to understand behavior from the individual perspective.
    • S - removes researcher bias somewhat
    • W - may not be representative if only a small number of people are studied.
  55. Explain Naturalistic observation
    • Referred to detached observation
    • S - close to reality
    • W - researcher bias
  56. Explain survey method
    • S - gains info from large number of people.
    • W - incorrect data, memory bias, info is only co relational and not causal
  57. Explain Experiment method
    • Most controlled way to test a theory.
    • S - control over extraneous variables
    • W - if study is not life like results may not be generalized to the larger population
Card Set
SO 300
SO 300