Social Psych Ch 3

  1. Priming
    activation of particular associations in memory (conscious or unconscious), affects how we interpret objects, persons, and events
  2. Exp. Participants unscrambled sentences that had elderly related words
    • Result: walked to elevator slower
    • Deals with: Priming
  3. Expectations
    Preconceived notions, shapes interpretations especially of ambiguous info,
  4. What can Expectations affect
    • -cause us to deny contradictory info and accept only supportive
    • -affect how we see and interpret another’s behavior
    • -can affect our memories
    • -shape behavior
  5. exp. Students who were pro Israeli and pro Arab watched a non biased news reporter talking about the war
    • Result: Pro Israeli students thought the report was anti Israeli, and pro Arab students thought it was pro Israeli
    • Deals with: Expectations
  6. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    elief or expectation that brings about its own fulfillment. Ex believing another nation is violent may lead one to act more defensively thereby making that nation act more aggressively
  7. Confirmation Bias
    Tendency to seek evidence that would confirm a hypothesis
  8. Exp. Trying to find out whether a woman was introvert
    • Result: questions were about non social behavior
    • Deals with: Confirmation Bias
  9. Belief perseverance
    Reluctance to change our beliefs in spite of disconfirming evidence
  10. Constructive memory
    changes in memories that occur because of current goals, and new info
  11. Misinformation effect
    incorporating new or false info into a memory
  12. Overconfidence
    we tend to be more confident than accurate
  13. Exp. Predict how well they knew their roommate
    • Result: predictions less accurate
    • Deals with: overconfidence
  14. Planning fallacy
    we underestimate time it takes to complete tasks
  15. Counterfactual Thinking
    Imagining alternative outcomes or scenarios
  16. Exp. Watching footage of Olympic athletes receiving medals
    • Result: Bronze medalists judged happier than Silver
    • Deals with: Counterfactual thinking
  17. Illusory Thinking
    Belief that we can control things which we really can’t, ex dice players “throwing hard” for a high number
  18. Exp. Participants buying lottery tickets
    • Result: willing to pay more for a ticket when they can choose the numbers
    • Deals with: Illusion of Control
  19. Attribution
    judging the cause of something
  20. Attribution Theory
    how people make attributions about their own and other’s behaviors (are they acting that way cause of themselves or the situation)
  21. Dispositional Attribution
    attributing behavior to person’s traits or abilities
  22. Situational Attribution
    attributing behavior to the environment
  23. Kelly’s Theory on Atrribution
    • -Consistency: does person act same in same situation
    • -Consensus: how many others act the same
    • -Distinctiveness: act same in other situations
  24. When do we make Dispositional Attributions
    high consistency, low consensus, and low distinctiveness
  25. When do we make Situational Attributions
    High Consistency, High Consensus, High distinctiveness
  26. Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)
    tendency to attribute people’s actions to their dispositions, when their actions were caused by situation
  27. Exp: Participants read essay written by fellow student. Either pro or anti Castro. Some told that the writers had to write a view point or were allowed to
    -Result: those who listened to a pro castro speech and were told writers could write what ever they wanted labeled the writers as pro castro, less so when they were told the writers had to write that -Deal with: Fundamental Attribution Error
  28. Perspective differences
    we see others’ behavior from the outside, they see it from inside.
  29. Culture
    collectivistic cultures less prone to FAE
  30. Regression to the Mean
    extreme outcomes are usually followed by more moderate ones, sports illustrated jinx
  31. Exp. Israeli flight instructors teaching techniques
    • Result: better flights followed punishments
    • Deals with: regression to the mean
  32. Intuitive Judgment
    judging by seat of out pants, automatic judgment
  33. Controlled processing
    deliberate, reflective, conscious. Solving math problems, logical reasoning
  34. Automatic processing
    effortless, habitual. Driving, recognizing faces
Card Set
Social Psych Ch 3
Exam 1