MGMT 340 Ch. 3

  1. Define Perception
    The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information in order to make sense of our world

    • (How we view our world)
    • Ex: Glass is half empty / Full

    Slide 29
  2. Selective Attention - Concept to Perception
    Process Filter info and put in own perceptual context. Object and Perceiver.

    Slide 30 pg. 69
  3. Define Mental Models
    • Broad world views or "Theory in use"
    • Mental representations of the external world. Helps us make sense of things.

    • Ex: "Undercover Boss"
    • Class Lecture: we have assumptions and expectations of ppl arriving and ask questions. (Mental Image)

    pg. 71
  4. Define Social Identity Theory
    • How we define ourselves in terms of our mbrship in various social groups = how we perceive the world
    • (How we feel about ourselves is the product of our membership in various social groups and categories...Defines who we are.

    Ex: sister, daughter, student, aunt

    Slide 36 pg. 71
  5. Define Stereotyping
    • We assign traits to people based on their membership in a social group or category
    • (e.g., older people, blonds, etc.)

    **We prejudge ppl base on this stereotype and we behave toward them not on the basis of who they are but what we think that stereotype says they are**

    Slide 37 pg. 73
  6. Define Prejudice
    • Pre-judging others because of their traits or membership in given social groups
    • Is usually negative but can be positive--people may think I’m smart because of having a Ph.D.

    **We prejudge ppl base on this stereotype and we behave toward them not on the basis of who they are but what we think that stereotype says they are**

    pg. 74
  7. Define Attribution Theory
    Attribution Process: How we perceive the reasons for behaviors

    • Internal Attribution
    • Perception that person’s behavior is due to motivation/ability rather than situation or fate

    • External Attribution
    • Perception that behavior is due to situation or fate rather than the person

    • Attribution Error: Self-Serving Bias
    • Attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors
    • L: (when good stuff happens to us we attribute it to internal factors and when bad things happen to us we attribute it to external factors)
    • Slide 39 Pg. 74
  8. Self-fulfilling Prophecy - Perceptual Concept
    Our expectation of a person causes that person to act in a way consistent with those expectations.

    Ex: Parents "You're not smart enough, you won't be anyone"

    Slide 40 pg. 79
  9. Self-Efficacy - Perceptual Concept
    • The perception that what ultimately happens to us is our own doing (actions/ internal)
    • confidence in our abilities to make it happen
    • (Like) Internal Locus of Control

    Ex: Button : “If it is to be…’s up to me!”

    slide 41
  10. What are the Perceptual Errors? (Mistakes in how we perceive ppl.)
    Primacy - first impressions are lasting impressions.

    Recency - most recent information dominates perceptions

    Halo - one trait forms our overall impression of that person Ex: Angels Hat, Handshake, Piano Player at Nordstrom, Walmart: door greeter

    Projection - believe other people have the same attitudes + beliefs and perceptions like you. Ex: "When I get recognized by my manager I love to come down in front of everybody n strut my stuff." (so as a manager you should ask the person how they would like to be recognized)

    Ex: Football player

    Slide 42 pg. 81
  11. What is the one and only way to change the negative first impression?
    Through perceptive positive interactions and that's where we get the recency effect. The most recent information dominates our previous perceptions.
  12. How do you improve perception?
    Through Empathy - sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts, and situation of others
  13. Define Learning
    Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that occurs as a result of a our exposure to or interaction with the environment
  14. Tactic Knowledge
    Knowledge not documented... but learned by observation and experience. Most of our knowledge comes from tactic knowledge.

    Slide 44 pg. 85
  15. What is Behavior Modification?
    We operate or influence our environment. If we are to alter or modify behavior we want to maximize the positive outcomes from behavior and minimize negative ones.

    Ex: If I want to change your behavior I'll give you $100 and you don't have to wash the dishes this week.

    We can mod behavior. If we change the environment we can change the behavior. If we have the right rewards and right punishments we can modify behavior.
  16. What is the Behavior Modification Model?
    A-B-C model

    • Antecedents - Lost customer in hallway
    • Behavior - Employee escorts man to laboratory
    • Consequences - Peer observes act and gives rave review card (OUTCOME)

    **All he wants you to know for consequences is that it is an outcome**

    Slide 46 pg. 86
  17. Define Positive Reinforcement
    Introduction of a consequence --> future probability of a specific behavior

    Ex: Receiving a bonus after successfully completing an important project is considered positive reinforcement.

    pg. 87
  18. Define Punishment
    When a consequence or threat of a consequence decreases frequency of behavior occurring

    L: Not effective as positive reinforcement. "Cats away the mice will play"

    Slide 47 pg. 87
  19. Social Learning theory involves what?
    • Behavioral modeling - Observing behaviors of others and modeling our behavior after them
    • Ex: Daughter learning to talk...he brakes the car... he didn't say a word... but from the back seat you hear "Oh Sh*t"

    Learning behavioral consequences - Observing consequences that others experience

    Self-reinforcement - Reinforcing our own behavior with positive actions within our control. Rewarding yourself for doing something good.

    Experiential Learning - Learning through reflecting upon experience and applying lessons learned to life and job. Learning through doing.
  20. Experiential Learning
    Learning through reflecting upon experience and applying lessons learned to life and job

    Ex: Even if an employee fails a task, the experience may be beneficial.
Card Set
MGMT 340 Ch. 3
Perception and Learning