1. Active immunity   
    a resistance of the body to infection in which the host produces its own antibodies in response to natural or artificial antigens
  2. Acute infection   
    those that generally appear suddenly or last a short time
  3. Airborne precautions   
    methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei smaller than 5 microns
  4. Airborne transmission   
    infectious agent transmitted by droplets or dust
  5. Antibodies or Immunoglobulins   
    immunoglobulins, part of the body's plasma proteins, defend primarily against the extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections
  6. Antigen   
    a substance capable of inducing the formation of antibodies
  7. Antiseptics   
    agents that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms
  8. Asepsis
    freedom from infection or infectious material
  9. Autoantigen   
    an antigen that originates in a person's own body
  10. Bacteremia   
    bacteria in the blood
  11. Bacteria   
    the most common infection-causing microorganisms
  12. Bacteriocins   
    substances produced by some normal flora (e.g., enterobacteria), that can be lethal to related strains of bacteria
  13. Bloodborne pathogens   
    those microorganisms carried in blood and body fluids that are capable of infecting other persons with serious and difficult to treat viral infections, namely hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and HIV
  14. Body substance isolation   
    (BSI) generic infection control precautions for all clients except those with diseases transmitted through the air
  15. Carrier   
    a person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent and serves as a potential source of infection, yet does not manifest any clinical signs of disease
  16. Cellular immunity or Cell-mediated defenses   
    also known as cell-mediated defenses, occur through the T-cell system
  17. Chemotaxis   the action by which leukocytes are attracted to injured cells
  18. Chronic infection   infection that occurs slowly, over a very long period, and may last months or years
  19. Cicatrix   
  20. Clean   
    free of potentially infectious agents
  21. Colonization   
    the presence of organisms in body secretions or excretions in which strains of bacteria become resident flora but do not cause illness
  22. Communicable disease   
    a disease that can spread from one person to another
  23. Compromised host   
    any person at increased risk for an infection
  24. Contact precautions   
    methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents easily transmitted by direct client contact or by contact with items in the client's environment
  25. Cultures   
    laboratory cultivations of microorganisms in a special growth medium
  26. Diapedesis   
    the movement of blood corpuscles through a blood vessel wall
  27. Dirty   
    denotes the likely presence of microorganisms, some of which may be capable of causing infection
  28. Disinfectants   
    agents that destroy pathogens other than spores
  29. Droplet nuclei   
    residue of evaporated droplets that remains in the air for long periods of time
  30. Droplet precautions   
    methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents transmitted by particle droplets larger than 5 microns
  31. Emigration   
    process in which leukocytes move through the blood vessel wall into the affected tissue spaces
  32. Endogenous   
    developing from within
  33. Exogenous   
    developing from without
  34. Exudate   
    material, such as fluid and cells, that has escaped from blood vessels during the inflammatory process and is deposited in tissue or on tissue surfaces
  35. Fibrinogen   
    a plasma protein that is converted to fibrin when it is released into the tissues and, together with thromboplastin and platelets, forms an interlacing network making a barrier to wall off an area
  36. Fibrous (scar) tissue   
    connective tissue repair of wounds with tissue that can proliferate under conditions of ischemia and altered pH
  37. Fungi  
     infection-causing microorganisms that include yeasts and molds
  38. Granulation tissue   
    young connective tissue with new capillaries formed in the wound healing process
  39. Humoral immunity  or Circulating immunity
    antibody-mediated defense; resides ultimately in the B lymphocytes and is mediated by the antibodies produced by B cells
  40. Hyperemia   
    increased blood flow to an area
  41. Iatrogenic infection   
    infections that are the direct result of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures
  42. Immunity   
    a specific resistance of the body to infection; it may be natural, or resistance developed after exposure to a disease agent
  43. Infection   
    the disease process produced by microorganisms
  44. Inflammation   
    local and nonspecific defensive tissue response to injury or destruction of cells
  45. Isolation   
    practices that prevent the spread of infection and communicable disease
  46. Leukocytes   
    white blood cells
  47. Leukocytosis   
    an increase in the number of white blood cells
  48. Local infection   
    an infection that is limited to the specific part of the body where the microorganisms remain
  49. Macrophages   
    large phagocytes
  50. Margination   
    the aggregating or lining up of substances along a surface or edge (eg, the lining up of white blood cells against the wall of a blood vessel during the inflammatory process)
  51. Medical asepsis
    all practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area, limiting the number, growth, and spread of microorganisms
  52. Nonspecific defenses   
    bodily defenses that protect a person against all microorganisms, regardless of prior exposure
  53. Nosocomial infections   
    infections associated with the delivery of health care services in a health care facility
  54. Occupational exposure   
    skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties
  55. Opportunistic pathogen   
    a microorganism causing disease only in a susceptible individual
  56. Parasites   
    microorganisms that live in or on another from which it obtains nourishment
  57. Passive immunity  or Acquired immunity
    a resistance of the body to infection in which the host receives natural or artificial antibodies produced by another source
  58. Pathogenicity   
    the ability to produce disease; a pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease
  59. Phagocytes   
    cells that ingest microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles
  60. Reservoir   
    a source of microorganisms
  61. Resident flora   
    microorganisms that normally reside on the skin, mucous membranes, and inside the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts
  62. Sepsis   
    the presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the blood or body tissues
  63. Septicemia   
    occurs when bacteremia results in systemic infection
  64. Specific (immune) defenses or Immune defenses 
    immune functions directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other infectious agents
  65. Sterile field   
    a specified area that is considered free from microorganisms
  66. Sterile technique or Surgical asepsis
    practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganisms;
  67. Sterilization   
    a process that destroys all microorganisms, including spores and viruses
  68. Systemic infection  
     when pathogens spread and damage different parts of the body
  69. Universal precautions (UP)   
    techniques to be used with all clients to decrease the risk of transmitting unidentified pathogens; currently, Standard Precautions incorporate UP and BSI
  70. Vector-borne transmission   
    a vector is an animal or flying or crawling insect that serves as an intermediate means of transporting the infectious agent
  71. Vehicle-borne transmission   
    a vehicle is any substance that serves as an intermediate means to transport and introduce an infectious agent into a susceptible host through a suitable portal of entry
  72. Virulence   
    ability to produce disease
  73. Viruses
    nucleic acid-based infectious agents
Card Set
Fundamental of Nursing Interventions - Chap. 31