Anthro 2 Exam 1

  1. Ethnography
    In-depth study of one culture
  2. Ethnology
    Cross-cultural comparison
  3. Compartitive method
    Ethnology, Human Relations Area File
  4. Ethnocentrism
    Each culture thinks their ways are correct (human universal)
  5. Humanistic Anthropology
  6. Scientific Approach
    Hypothesis, testable, flexible, repeatable
  7. Holistic Perspective
    The broadest context in which everything in cultural anthropology can be comprehended
  8. Cultural relativism
    An individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood in terms of his or her own culture.
  9. Postmodernism
    Theoretical perspective that is humanistic not scientific, it is impossible for anyone to have objective and neutral knowledge of another culture
  10. Components of culture
    • Cognitive Processes - ideas, knowledge, symbols, standards, values
    • Behaviors - gestures, body movement, manners, social interactions, play, work
    • Material creations - artifacts, features
  11. Enculturation
    The process of learning one's culture while growing up in it
  12. Integrated culture
    All parts of a culture are intermingled
  13. Ideal vs. real
    • Ideal - what people believe they should do
    • Real - what people can be observed to do
  14. Race
    • Biologically - a group within a species that shares a cluster of genetically determined traits
    • Culturally - a social construct based on perceived cultural differences
  15. Vitamin D hypothesis
    UV radiation synthesizes Vit. D in skin cells, areas of little UV radiation selected for depigmented skin
  16. Ultraviolet radiation
    Part of the electromagnetic energy from the sun that is not visible to the human eye
  17. Homogeneous cultures
    Cultural group that shares most ideas, values, knowledge, behaviors, and artifacts.
  18. Innovation (invention)
    Something totally new (something new that is created based on items or ideas that already exist)
  19. Subculture
    Smaller group within a larger cultural complex that shares behaviors, attitudes, artifacts, etc.
  20. Ethnicity
    A type of subculture characterized by members sharing a culture of origin, often one originating in another country
  21. Folate hypothesis
    Darker skin colors protect against the destruction of folate, folate promotes neural tube development
  22. Race as a social construct
    • Within group variation is greater than between groups
    • - Ex. genetic variation is greater among “Asians” than between
    • “Asians” and “Caucasians”
  23. Heterogeneous cultures
    Cultural group that shares only a few components, typical of large societies such as states, where there are many subcultures such as ethnic groups
  24. Diffusion
    The borrowing and exchange of items or ideas between cultures
  25. Microculture
    The smallest subgroup within a culture that shares specific cultural features such as values or behaviors
  26. Skin color cline
    • Cline - The variation of a biological trait along a geographic continuum
    • Human skin pigments show distribution along a cline from the equator north and south
  27. Melanin
    A pigment in the outer layer of the skin, responsible for skin color and blocks UVB from damaging lower layers of the skin
  28. Ethics
    A system of moral principles
  29. Culture shock
    Feelings of homesickness, disorientation, helplessness, and frustration that occur after exposure to an unfamiliar culture
  30. Rapport
    A harmonious relationship
  31. Life histories
    Long-term information
  32. Ethnographic film
    Film dealing with ethnography
  33. Reflexive (narrative) ethnography
    An approach to fieldwork that focuses on the personal experiences and perspectives of the ethnographer, as well as the voices of the native members of a culture
  34. Life shock
    A sudden unexpected experience that causes one to faint, become hysterical, or vomit, more likely to occur in an unfamiliar setting
  35. Formal and informal interviews
    • Formal - ethnographic research method where planned, scripted questions are asked of informants
    • Informal - ethnographic research method using open-ended questions that allow informants to talk about what they deem important
  36. Nisa
    A member of the African !Kung San peoples of the Kalahari Desert
  37. Participant observation
    The process of an anthropologist doing ethnographic fieldwork
  38. Fieldwork
    Learning about another culture by participating in their culture for extended periods of time
  39. Principle consultant/key informant
    An ethnographic interview subject who has been selected by judgement sample; a knowledgeable native who plays a major role in teaching the ethnographer about the informant's culture
  40. Genealogical method
    The ethnographic method of recording information about kinship relationships using symbols and diagrams
  41. Photography
    A large part of ethnography
  42. Monograph
    The reporting of data gathered during ethnographic fieldwork
  43. Descriptive linguistics
    The part of anthropological linguistics that focuses on the mechanics of language
  44. Morphology
    Form - words from sounds
  45. Historical linguistics
    The study of the history of languages, including their development and relationship to other languages
  46. Sociolinguistics
    A subfield of linguistics that analyzes the relationship between language and culture with a focus on how people speak in social context
  47. silent language: kinesics, proxemics, cultural time,
    ritualized phrases, material culture
    • Kinesics - The use of body to communicate, gestures, posture, and facial expression
    • Proxemics - The study of the use of space in communication
    • Cultural time - How time pertains to a culture
    • Ritualized phrases - Words or phrases that have meanings other than the formal ones they represent
    • Material culture - Artifacts and features of a culture
  48. Phonology
    The general study of the sounds used in human speech
  49. Syntax
    The manner in which minimum units of meaning (morphemes) are combined
  50. Ethnolinguistics
    A field of study in linguistics that analyzes the relationship between a language and culture
  51. Displacement
    The ability of humans to communicate symbolically about distant time and place
  52. Phoneme
    The smallest unit of sound in speech that will indicate a difference in meaning
  53. Morpheme
    The smallest combination of sounds in human speech that carry a meaning
  54. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    A hypothesis about the relationship between language and culture that states that language constructs perceptions
Card Set
Anthro 2 Exam 1
Anthropology 2 Exam 1