APUSH Chapter 2

  1. Jamestown
    Was up river named James. Chose an inland setting that believed would offer security from natives. Was low and swampy and subject to malaria. Difficult to clear land for cultivation. Bordered territories of powerful NAs. For 17 years wave after wave of settlers try to make it hospitable and profitable colony. Town became place of misery and death. London Co found itself with endless losses. People highly vulnerable to diseases. London Co want quick return so people looking for gold (no gold!) and pile up lumber tar itch and iron for export. Should have grown food, No women so no households and people no feel a permanent stake in community
  2. Reasons for Jamestown
    London Co launched colonizing expeditions. WANT MONEY!
  3. Starving time at Jamestown
    Winter of1609-1610 a period worse than any before. Local NAs antagonized by hostile actions by early English settlers killed off the livestock in the woods and kept them barricaded in the palisade. Lived on what could find. When shop that had went aground in Bermuda finally arrived in May found 60 shrunken people out of 500 last summer took them on ship and abandoned the colony.
  4. John Smith
    Captain at 27 was famous world traveler. Leadership in colony bitterly divided until fall of 1608 when took control. Imposed work and order on community and organized raids on neighboring NA villages to steal food and kidnap them. During the second winter fewer than a dozen (in pop of around 200) died. Left in 1609 and colony showing promise of survival.
  5. John Rolfe
    Was a planter who in 1612 noting that local NAs were growing a strain of tobacco began trying to cultivate the crop in Virginia. Tobacco painting soon spread up and down the James. Married Pocahontas.
  6. House of Burgesses
    On July 30th 1619 delegates from the various communities met as the House of Burgesses which was the first meeting of an elected legislature within what was to become the US. It was open to all men then changed to landowners.
  7. Africans
    A Dutch ship brought in “20 and odd Negros.” Some reason to believe that the colonists did not consider the first Africans slaves that they thought they were like indentured servants. For a time black labor remained limited. Although Africans trickled steadily into the colony planters preferred Europeans indentured servants until at least 1670s when white servants began t become scarce and expensive. Small group of black who arrived in 1619 marked first step toward enslavement of Africans in what was to be American republic.
  8. Indian Conflicts
    Society was built on oppression of Indians. Sir Thomas Dale led unrelenting assaults against the Powhatan Indians. Kidnapped Powhatan’s daughter Pocahontas. By the time of her marriage he stop attacks in the face of overwhelming odds.
  9. Powhatan
    Tribe named after him. Formidable chief. Powhatan refused to ransom Pocahontas when she was kidnapped. By the time of her marriage he stop attacks in the face of overwhelming odds.
  10. Opechancanough
    Powhatan brother. After brother’s death secretly began to plan the elimination of English intruders. On March morning 1622 tribesmen called on white settlements for goods for sale and suddenly attacked. 347 of both sexes and all ages including John Rolfe die when warriors forced to retreat. Not until over 20 years were Powhatans finally defeated.
  11. Agriculture
    Survival of Jamestown was largely a result of agricultural tech developed by NAs and borrowed by the English. Native agriculture better adapted to work with the soil and climate of Virginia grew beans pumpkins vegetables and maize. Killed tress by girdling them (made deep incisions around base) in areas where they planted or set fire on roots. Did not plant crops in long straight rows but in curving patterns around dead tree trunks. English realize great value of corn. Stalk source of sugar and spoiled less easily than other grains. Beans along corn to enrich soil.
  12. Maryland (religion and society)
    George Calvert first Lord Baltimore envisioned establishing a colony in America as real estate venture and place for English Catholics. Died while establishing charter but son Cecilius second Lord B got charger to settler land in Chesapeake region. Lord B named brother Leonard Calvert gov. Settled city of St. Mar’s on high dry bluff. Neighboring NAs befriended them and provided tem shelter and stocks of corn. Early Marylanders no Indian assaults plagues or starving time. encouraged immigration of Protestant because need more people if it would pay off. Calverts realized Catholics be minority so had religious toleration called “Act Concerning Religion” which was freedom of worship for all Christians. Politics here had tensions and at times violence between the two. House of Delegates rep assembly based on rules of Parliament. Proprietor retained absolute authority to distribute land as he wished. Was an upper class. Labor shortage start land grant procedure had a headright system. Center of tobacco cultivation. Inden serv. Late 17th cent slaves.
  13. Lord Baltimore
    see Maryland
  14. Bacon’s Rebellion
    Bacon had good farm in the west and seat on gov council. But like other members of the backcountry gentry chafed at gov’s attempts to hold line of settlement steady to avoid antagonizing NAs. His rift with Berkley was also result of resent hat he not part of inner circle of gov council and Berkley no let him have piece of fur trade that gov controlled. Major conflict between NA and whites. Bacon want Militia but Berkley saw him as threat and no want to see needless slaughter of NA say no. Bacon ignore and attack NA challengers unsuccessfully. Heard of Bacon’s unauthorized military thing and took him off council. Turned army on gov and twice led troops to Jamestown. First time won temp pardon second after gov repudiated the agreement he come back and drove gov into exile. But Bacon die of dysentery.
  15. Sir William Berkley
    Royal gov of Virginia dominated politics of colony. Helped open interior of colony by sending explores across Blue Ridge Mountains and crushing 1644 NA uprising. Made delegates of House of B landowners. Elections were rare and some house of b in eastern region of colony subservient to him who remained in office. See Bacons’ Rebellion.
  16. West Indies and Slavery
    Spanish claimed all Caribbean islands but only created substantial settlements on biggest of them: Cuba Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. English French and Dutch traders settler on smaller islands despite Spanish claim. After Spain and Netherlands go to war which distract Spanish navy so English colonization increase.
  17. Slavery in West Indies
    English settlers experiment unsuccessfully with tobacco and cotton but found sugar so they first bring inden serv. The work and climate whites no like so use Africans which soon outnumbered whites. Some planters grew enormously wealthy and because their livelihoods depended on work forces created rigid slave system remarkably quickly. Late 17th cent African slave outnumber white settlers four to one. Planters paid little attention to welfare of workers said was cheaper to buy new slaves than protect well being of current ones. Few Africans survived more than a decade.
  18. Plymouth and Pilgrims
    Puritan Separatists in England establish first enduring European settlement in New England. First moved illegally to Holland but got bad jobs and children adapt to Dutch life so go across Atlantic. Pilgrims sailed from Plymouth England in September 1620. 37 “saints” (Puritan Separatists) and 37 “strangers” (people not part of congregation). Landed at what is now Cape Cod landed in place John Smith called Plymouth on map. Saints drew up Mayflower compact to establish gov for themselves. Fist winter hard. Half died from malnutrition disease and exposure. Colony survived because NAs help but soon they lot die because of disease. Profitable trade in fish and furs. William Bradford go successfully for many years without any serous interference from London. Pilgrims always poor but content lived lives in godly ways.
  19. Massachusetts Bay and Puritans
    Charles I worse to them than James I. Obtained a grant of land in New England and got charter from king. Largest single migration of its kind in 17th cent. Very serious and pious. Strove to lead useful conscientious lives of thrift and hard work and they honored material success as evidence of God’s favor. City on a hilly for corrupt world to see and emulate. Was a theocracy. Nearby pilgrims and neighboring NA help with food and advice.
  20. John Winthrop
    Gov of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Carried the charter which meant the colonists no responsible to no company officials in England. He and other founders believed that it was a holy commonwealth or city on a hill.
  21. Connecticut (Thomas Hooker)
    Began attracting families despite presences of powerful tribes and despite claim by Dutch. Liked fertile lands and isolation from Massachusetts Bay. Thomas Hooker minister of Newton (Cambridge) defied Massachusetts gov led his congregation west and established town of Hartford. H and two towns established gov of own and adopted constitution known as Fundamental Orders of Connecticut which was similar to Massachusetts but larger prop of men right to vote and hold office. Another colony reflected unhappiness with what its founders considered increasing religious laxity in Boston. Fundamental Articles of New Haven established Bible oriented gov even stricter than Mass Bay.
  22. Rhode Island (Roger Williams)
    Roger Williams was an engaging but controversial young minister who lived for a time in Salem. Confirmed Separatist who argued Mass church should abandon all allegiance to Church of England. Proclaimed all land colonists occupying belonged to the natives and not to the king or Mass Bay Comp. Colonial gov voted to deport him but escaped. During winter of 1635-1636 he took refuge with Narragansett tribesmen and in spring bought tract of land and with followers created Providence. In 1644 got charter from Parliament so establish gov for Providence and surrounding settlements like Mass but without any ties to church. This only place where all faiths could worship.
  23. Anne Hutchinson
    Argued that many clergy were not amount “elect” and were therefore entitled to no spiritual authority. Teaching like this known as Antinomian heresy were serious threat to spiritual authority of established clergy. Also challenged prevailing assumptions of proper role of women in Puritan society. As her influences grew she began to deliver open attacks on members of clergy. Convicted of heresy and sedition and was banished.
  24. New Hampshire (John Wheelwright)
    New Hampshire and Maine established in 1629 by two Enlgish proprietors. Few settlers moved here until religious disruptions in Mass Bay. In 1639 J W disciple of Anne led some of his fellow dissenters to Exeter NH. Others soon followed. Mass Bay Co tried to extend authority to entire N territory but only partial success. NH became separate colony in 1679 and Main remained part of Massachusetts until 1820.
  25. Pequot War
    Hostilities broke in the Connecticut Valley and the Pequot NAs of the regions ended bad for them. Pequot tribe almost wiped out.
  26. English Civil War
    Charles need more money so called Parliament back into session so he could levy taxes. Antagonized them by dismissing them twice in two years so in 1642 they organized military force. Cavaliers support king and Roundhead don’t and they were largely Puritans lasted 7 years. Oliver Cromwell “protector” instead of king. His son bad so Charles II got throne back (The Restoration). After that colonization resumed. Charles II rewarded faithful courtiers with grants of land in New World and gave a lot of them.
  27. The Carolinas (Fundamental)
    Headright system. Proprietors received almost kingly powers over their grant they had tremendous estates. Collected annual payments from settlers. Guaranteed religious freedom to all Christian faiths (were Anglicans). Created a representative assembly to make laws. Early attempts at colonization’s were quickly abandoned and most of the original proprietors soon gave up. Anthony Ashley Cooper persisted and convinced other proprietors to give up attracting settlers from other colonies and to finance people from England. With aid of English philosopher John Locke he (now earl of Shaftesbury) drew up Fundamental Constitution for Carolina. Divided colony into counties of equal sizes and divided counties into equal parcels. Elaborate social hierarchy proprietors (seigneurs) ten local aristocracy (consisting of lesser nobles known as landgraves or caciques) and ordinary settlers (leetmen) then poor whites than slaves. Colony never fully united N was backwards famers and S fertile lands and good arbor had prosperous econ. S Car had ties with Barbados.
  28. New Netherlands, New York
    Charles give brother James duke of York all territory lying between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers. The grant faced caused a challenge to the Dutch. Richard Nicolls in charge of navy. Went to New Amsterdam and extracted surrender from unpop Dutch gov. Duke of York renamed it New York. Lots of diversity. James made no effort to impose his Roman Catholicism on colony. Delegated powers to a gov and a council but made no provision for rep assemblies. Property holding and political power remained highly divided and highly unequal. James give large estates to some political supporters. Power dispersed around wealthy English landlords Dutch patroons fur traders and duke’s political appoints. When he took throne as James II had about 30,000 people.
  29. New Jersey
    Sir George Carteret named territory that James gave him New Jersey after island in English Channel on which he had been born. Generated few profits and in 1674 Berkeley sold his half interest. The colony divided into two jurisdictions East and West which squabbled until they joined into a single royal colony. No important class of large landowners or had a single important city. Diversity.
  30. The Quakers (William Penn)
    The Society of Friends became Quakers who rejected predestination and original sin. People had divinity in themselves and just had to cultivate it so for salvation. Granted women a position in church generally equal to men. No formal church gov and no traditional church buildings. No paid clergy. Confirmed pacifists so no take part in wars. Unpopular in England with gov and members of other religious orders so they went to America. William Penn son of an admiral in Royal Navy and landlord of valuable Irish estates. He gave him a grant Charles II owed to his dead father and he became landlord and ruler. Through informative and honest advertising he made Pennsylvania best known and most cosmopolitan of the colonies and it prospered because of his successful recruiting planning and it’s mild climate and fertile soil. Named city Philadelphia which had rectangular streets. Recognized NAs claim to land in the province and scrupulous for reimbursing it. They generally respected him and during his lifetime the colony no have major battles with them. Some people resist nearly absolute power of proprietor and some say gov unresponsive to needs. Peen agreed to Charter of Liberties for Colony which established a rep assembly that greatly limited proprietor authority.
  31. Georgia (James Oglethorpe)
    Last English colony in what was to become US. General James Oglethorpe and others were primarily driven by military and philanthropic motives. Wanted to erect military barrio between Spanish lands to the south and the colonies and provide a refigure for the impoverished where English people without prospects could start new life. Limited size of landholdings to make the settlement compact and easily defended against Spanish and NA attacks. Blacks and Roman Catholics excluded so was rum trade with NA strictly regulated. Strict rules governing life in the new colony stifled its development and created dissent in its early years. Settlers needed work force and wanted to buy slaves. Some opposed restrictions on property sizes. Many resented the nearly absolute political power of O and the trustees as a result new people settled in S Carolina. Eventually trustees removed limitation on landholdings and ban on slavery and rum. 1751 returned colony to king who permitted election of rep assembly.
  32. Navigation Acts
    First of them closed colonies to all trade except those carried by English ships and required tobacco and other items exported to colonies only to England or to English places. Second said all gods sent from Europe to colonies pass England so be taxed. Third imposed duties on coastal trade around colonies and provided appointment of customs officials to enforce them.
  33. Dominion of New England
    It combined the gov of Mass with the govs of New England colonies and well as NY and NJ. Eliminated existing assemblies within new Dominion and appointed a single gov Sir Edmund Andros to supervise entire region from Boston. Rigid enforcement of Nav Acts and his brusque dismissal of the colonists claims of rights of Englishmen made him quickly and thoroughly unpopular.
  34. Glorious Rev
    Got rid of James I and brought in William and Mary in Glorious Revolution because was no blood. When Boston people heard of it go rid of Andros. New sovereigns in England accepted it and restored colonial govs. Not re create them as they were. Combined Mass with Plymouth and made it single royal colony. Leisler captured city and drove Nicholson (Andros second in command) proclaimed him new head of gov. tried to stabilize power but no work. John Coode got rid of lord Baltimore’s officials and led to Maryland’s establishment as royal colony.
Card Set
APUSH Chapter 2
read the tags and stuff this is for me but private button no work