Molecular biology

  1. What is a ribose
    • Found in RNA
    • It is a sugar
  2. What is deoxyribose
    • Found in DNA
    • It is a sugar
  3. What is a purine
    • Guanine and adenine
    • Bicyclic
    • 2 rings
  4. What is a pyrimidine
    • Cytosine, thymine and unicile
    • Monocyclic
    • Only have 1 ring
  5. What is a nucleotide
    Phosphate, sugar and a base
  6. Nuclaic acid?
    DNA and RNA
  7. What is thymine?
    • Only Found in DNA
    • Matches with aidenine
  8. What is uricile
    • Only in RNA
    • Takes thymines spot
    • Mathes with aidenine
  9. mRNA?
    • Messenger RNA
    • Found in cytoplasm
    • Rough copy of polypeptide
  10. tRNA?
    • Transfer RNA
    • Found in ribosome
    • Gathers amino acids
  11. What happens in RNA processing
    • 5' and poly A tail are added to pre mRNA
    • Pieces of RNA get deleted
    • Finished mRNA leaves nucleues and enters cytoplasm
  12. What happens in protien synthesis?
    • Linking together of amino acids in sequence determined in sequence of nitrogen bases
    • *** poly A tail and 5' are added ****
    • how to make functional protiens
  13. What is DNA's function
    • Contains genetic coding
    • Used to control functions
    • Genetic instructions
    • To code the way protiens turn genes on or off
    • Used to make RNA and mRNA
  14. What is RNA's function?
    • Carries codes from nucleus to ribosome
    • Makes a copy strand of DNA
  15. DNA replication?
    • Seperates into 2 strands
    • Strands run in opposite directions
  16. What is a gene?
    • Section on DNA
    • sequence of nucleotides
  17. What is a protein?
    Sequence of amino acids
  18. What is mutagen?
    • Increases rate of mutation in body
    • Ie: radiation, UV rays
  19. What is a mutation?
    • Error in DNA strand
    • Ie nonesense mutation
  20. What is DNA exactly?
    • DNA is made from nuclaic acids
    • Also called a polynucleotide
    • 5' to 3' direction
    • Guanine, cytosine, aidenine and thymine
    • Double helix shape
    • Bases can be in any order
    • Two polynucleotides
  21. What is RNA exactly?
    • is made from nuclaic acids
    • Also called a polynucleotide
    • 5' to 3' direction
    • Guanine, cytosine, aidenine and uricile
    • Bases can be in any order
    • Single polynucleotide
  22. What is a codon?
    • Sequence of bases (3 bases)
    • AUG is start codon
    • Methinine is always start aminio acid
  23. What is anti codon ?
    • Matchin pair to codons
    • Found on tRNA (bottom)
  24. DNA's location?
  25. RNA's location?
    • mRNA, tRNA, RNA -> cytoplasm
    • Pre mRNA --> nucleouse
  26. Why must DNA replication occur?
    • Need a full set of genes to function correctly
    • Must exist in each cell so that genetics continoisly occurs
  27. What is DNA transcription used for?
    • For making protein --> to
    • Make polypeptide
  28. What is an amino acid?
    • 20 of them
    • Make chain links
    • Make up polypeptide
  29. What is a polypeptide?
    Link of amino acids held together by a peptide bond
  30. What is polymerase chain reaction?
    Invreases DNA molecules
  31. What is translation?
    Ribosome reads the mRNA messege and links amino acids to form a polypeptide
  32. ribosome?
    • In cytoplasm
    • DNA RNA
    • two part structure
    • Trabslates mRNA to amino acids
  33. What is albinism?
    • Genetic abnormailty in animals
    • Eyes skin and hair have no pigment
  34. What is cloning?
    Production of identical copies of molecules
  35. What is DNA fingerprinting?
    Using DNA fragments to identify a person
  36. What is base-pair substitution?
    • One pair is replaced by another in DNA strand
    • Makes diffrent amino acids
    • Can be bad
  37. What is a framshift mutation?
    • One or more bases are added Or deleted from DNA strand
    • Changes polypeptide strand
  38. _____ is the blueprint or master copy of information used to construct an organsim
  39. _____ is made using DNA as a template also helps build the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
  40. ____ carries amino acids to the ribosome
  41. ______ is a copying process where 2 DNA molecules are formed from one
    DNA replication
  42. _____ builds an RNA copy of DNA nucleotide sequence, to carry to the ribosome
  43. _____ involves modifying the pre-mRNA strand in the nucleouse in preparation for its use by the ribosome in protein synthesis
    RNA processing
  44. ____ is the first amino acid in a polypeptide chain
  45. ___ is the process of building polypeptide strands
    Protein synthesis/translation
  46. ____ is 3 nucleotides in mRNA strand that code for amino acids
  47. ____ is where 3 nucleotides are found on tRNA
    Anti codon
  48. _____ proved that it was actually DNA, and not protein that carried genetic information in cells, by using radioactively labelled bacteriophage virus and bacterium
    Hershey & Chase
  49. _____ correctly proposed the double helix structure of the DNA molecule as well of how DNA is replicated
    Watson & Crick
  50. ___ lack an oxygen atom in their C2 and are used by DNA
    Deoxyribose sugr
  51. _____ have an oxygen atom in their C2 and are found in RNA
    Ribose sugat
  52. ____ are bicyclic and include adenine and guanine
  53. ____ are monocyclic and include thymine uricile and cytosine
  54. ___ are the building blocks of DNA and RNA
  55. ____ is only used in DNA
  56. _____ is only used in RNA
  57. _____ is double stranded and contains deoxyribose sugar
  58. ____ is single stranded and contains ribose sugar
  59. ______ nucleic acid can only be found in the nucleus
  60. ______ nucleic acid can only be found both in the nucleus and cytoplasm
  61. _____ took X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA, helped Watson and crick.
    Rosalind Franklin
  62. ____ discovered that equal amounts of A and T where found in both organisms and where equal and C and T
    Erwin Chargaff
  63. ____ are the building blocks of an organism.
  64. ___ are errors in the DNA sequence that can cause incorrect amino acids sequences to be formed in a polypeptide
  65. _____ are agents such as chemicals, UVA, or radioactive elements that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism
  66. ____ are joined tougher by peptide bonds
    Amino acid
  67. ___ are chains of amino acids formed together to make protein
  68. ____ occurs when one or more base pairs are added or deleted in DNA strand
    Frame shifting
  69. ____ is the production of identical copies of molecules, genes, cells or organisms
    • Cloning
    • Ie: dolly the sheep
  70. ____ is the process of using DNA. DNA fragments to identify a person or organism
    DNA Fingerprinting
  71. The _____ is a technology that is used to make millions of copies of a DNA fragment in a short period of time
    Polymerase chain
  72. Also called protein synthesis. Process that happens in the ribosomes of cells
  73. General dogma of molecular biology
    Image Upload 2
  74. Purine and Pyrimidine diagram
    Image Upload 4
  75. DNA diagram
    Image Upload 6
  76. DNA replication diagram
    Image Upload 8
  77. another central dogmaImage Upload 10
Card Set
Molecular biology
molecular biology study cards