Bio Topic 2

  1. Biology
    Is the science dealing with living organisms
  2. What are the 7 characteristics of all living things?
    • Made up of organic molecules
    • Composed of cells
    • Grow and reproduce
    • Use energy (metabolize)
    • Respond to their environment
    • Maintain homeostasis
    • Evolve and have adaptive traits
  3. What are the 4 basic classes of organic molecules?
    Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protiens, Nucleic Acids
  4. What are Carbohydrates commonly known as?
    Sugars and startches
  5. What is the function of carbohydrates?
    Provide energy to cells
  6. What elements are carbohydrates composed of?
    Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen
  7. What are monosaccharides?
    Type of carbohydrate. Simple sugars, smallest molecular units of carbs. ex) Glucose, Fructose
  8. What are disaccharides?
    type of carbohydrate made of 2 monosaccarides covalently bonded. ex) sucrose
  9. What are polysaccharides?
    complex carbohydrates that form when many monosaccharides join together in long chains. ex) glycogen
  10. What are lipids commonly known as?
  11. Do lipids dissolve in water? Are they polar?
    Lipids do not dissolve in water and are nonpolar
  12. What are triglycerides?
    type of lipid, made up of glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
  13. Triglycerides can be either _________ or _________
    saturated or unsaturated
  14. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated?
    Saturated have only single covalent bonds, unsaturated have double. saturated are solid, like butter, unsaturated are liquid, like olive oil
  15. What are phospholipids?
    type of lipid made up of glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group.
  16. what do phospholipids do?
    form plasma membranes
  17. Phospholipds have _____ heads and _______ tails.
    hydrophilic, hydrophobic
  18. what are steroids?
    type of lipid, made up of 4 carbon rings with various molecules
  19. give two examples of monosaccharides
    glucose, fructose
  20. give an example of a disaccharide
  21. polysaccarides usually function to _____________ or _____________
    store energy or provide structure
  22. give 2 examples of polysaccharides that store energy
    startch, glycogen
  23. Triglycerides are made of one molecule of ________ and 3 ________
    glycerol, fatty acids
  24. Phospholipids are made of one molecule of ________ and ___ fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a variable group.
    glycerol. 2
  25. Steriods are made of 4 _________ attached to various molecules
    carbon rings
  26. phospholipids function as
    plasma membranes of cells
  27. What is a protien??
    A polymer made of one or more chains of amino acids
  28. what are amino acids?
    the building blocks of protiens.
  29. Some amino acids are _________ amino acids and some are ________ amino acids
    essential, non essential
  30. what are amino acids made of
    a carbom bound to a hydrogen, an amino group, an acidic carboxyl group, and a side chain.
  31. what are the 4 different structures of protiens?
    primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
  32. what are the functions of protien?
    structural, transportation, movement, chemical reactions
  33. The two nucleic acids in our cells are
    DNA and RNA
  34. what is DNA?
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  35. what are nucleotides
    the building blocks of nucleic acids
  36. what are the bases of DNA?
    Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
  37. what is the sugar of DNA?
  38. What is RNA?
    ribonucleic acid. single stranded
  39. what are the bases of RNA?
    adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
  40. what is the sugar of RNA
  41. what is ATP?
    Adenosine triphosphate. The energy currency of cells. Energy containing molecule
  42. what are the 3 points of the cell theory?
    • 1. cells are the smallest units of life
    • 2. cells make up all living things
    • 3. cells come from other cells
  43. what are the two basic types of cells
    eukaryotic and prokaryotic
  44. what are prokaryotic cells?
    small, simple cells. limited to bacteria and archaea
  45. what are eukaryotic cells?
    the cells of plants and animals, has a nucleus and organelles.
  46. Define metabolism.
    the sum of all the chemical reactions within an organsism
  47. metabolic reactions can be _______ or ________
    metabolic or anabolic
  48. What is anabolism?
    assembly of simple molecules into more complex molecules. (requires energy)
  49. what is catabolism?
    breaking down of complex molecules into more simple ones. (release of energy) polymers into monomers
  50. what is a substrate?
    the particular substance that an enzyme works on
  51. Define homeostasis
    a condition of dynamic equilibrium
  52. what are the two feedback mechanisms?
    negative and positive
  53. what is a negative feedback mechanism?
    corrective measures that slow or reverse a variation from the normal value of a factor, such as body temp, and return the factor to its normal level.

    a change in variable triggers a control mechanism to counteract change
  54. what is a positive feedback mechanism?
    a change in variable triggers control mechanism to amplify, rather than reverse, the change
  55. give an example of a positive feedback mechanism
  56. give an example of a negative feedback mechanism
    body temperature...sweating, shivering
  57. how do receptors, control centers, and effectors play a part in feedback mechanisms?
    • receptor (sensor) detects the change. the control center determines the factors normal level, and sends appropriate response info to the effector.
    • effector carries out the response.
Card Set
Bio Topic 2
Life and Evolution