
Independent variable
What causes the effect.

Dependent variable
What it depends on.

Experimental
A condition that involves treatment.

Control
A condition that does not involve treatment.

Extraneous
Measure that is not under investigation in an experiment but can effect outcome on the influence of results.

Confounding variable
Things that effect other variables between each other.

Controlled variable
Any variable that is held constant in a research study.

Between subjects design
Scores compared between different participants

Random allocation
Used to increase the likelihood that the broad range of potential will be equally distributed between groups.

Matched participants design
A researcher may match groups on variables such as age gender to control the effect on this variable.

Quasi Experimental Design
Aims to establish a cause and effect between and independent and dependent variable.

WithinSubjects Design
Scores compared within the same participants

Order effect
Participants responses are effected by the order of conditions to which they were exposed.

Counterbalancing
Dividing the participants into two groups and have each group perform a slightly different task, so that any imbalance within the task will be cancelled out.

Mixed Design
A mix of both types of designs used, with both subjects and within subject comparisons.

Repeatability and Reproducibility
Repeatability Measured carried out under the same conditions but can someone get the same results again.
Reproducibility Measured under changed conditions including a different method of measurement.

Validity
How well the investigation and its measurements provide meaningful and generalizable information.

Different types of distribution in a Histogram
Normally distributed, Positively and Negatively skewed

Mean
Average set of scores calculated by adding all the scores of the data set and then dividing the total number of scores in the set.

Median
Middle score of the data, by arranging scores from highest to lowest.

Mode
Most frequently occurring score

Standard deviation
Measure of variability that the average distance that a set of data points are from the mean.

Large standard deviation
High variability

Small standard deviation
Low variability

How do you calculate percentage and percentage change?
To calculate a percentage you divide the number of the subset by the total number then multiply the result by 100.
The percentage change is the difference between the two. E.g. 70%30%=40%.

True value
Value or range of values that would be found if a quantity could be measured perfectly

Accuracy and Precision
Accuracy of a measurement is how close it is to the true value of quantity being measured. Can describe values as more or less accurate.
 Precision refers to how close a set of measurement values are to each other.
 E.g. A questionnaire or brain imaging technique.

Internal validity
How appropriate the investigation design, sampling and participant allocation is and whether there are extraneous or confounding variables effecting the results.

External validity
Whether the results of the research can be applied to similar individuals in a different setting.

Types of errors
 Random
 Systematic
 Personal

Outliers
Data that's further from the rest

Sample size
Impacts the quality of data, larger sample sizes make it more likely to find a relationship, if one exists. More likely to to be representative of the population.

Possible limitations of conclusions
Order effect, each participant has to engage in the testing twice.

5 ethical concepts
 Autonomy Feeling able to control your life
 Justice Thoughts and feelings people feel about the value of people and their outcomes
 Beneficence Act of kindness of doing good for others as well as moral obligation
 Nonmaleficence Requires researchers to avoid harm to children
 Fidelity The extent to which treatments are delivered as intended

6 ethical guidelines
 Confidentiality When you talk to someone professional they shouldn't tell anyone what you have said
 Informed consent Given someone permission to do something
 Deception A researcher giving false information about something, misleading the key aspect of research
 Debriefing Providing emotional and psychological support immediately after a traumatic event
 Right to withdraw Ability of a researcher to drop out of their research at any time without a punishment

A controlled experiment
All variable factors are stayed the same in a experimental group that is changed

Correlational studies
Examine event exposure, disease prevention and risk factors in a population

Correlation vs Causation
Correlation is the statistical change between the two and causation is the changes in one variable bringing out the changes in the other, cause and effect between the two.

Positive vs negative correlation
Positive The variables move in the same direction
Negative The variables move in opposite directions

Case studies
An in depth investigation

Classification vs Identification
Classification Sorting subjects or events into groups or categories
Identification Describing something in enough detail so it could be recognized in a given context

Fieldwork
Observing and interacting with a selected environment beyond the classroom, used when researchers want to capture humans thoughts and feelings in a natural setting.

Modelling
Creating a mathematical or physical model of the system of concepts, events or processes.

Product, process or system development
 The design of a process to meet a human need.
 E.g. Apps to help you on the daily (Habit tracker)

Literature review
Survey research on a particular topic

