Research Methods

  1. Independent variable
    What causes the effect.
  2. Dependent variable
    What it depends on.
  3. Experimental
    A condition that involves treatment.
  4. Control
    A condition that does not involve treatment.
  5. Extraneous
    Measure that is not under investigation in an experiment but can effect outcome on the influence of results.
  6. Confounding variable
    Things that effect other variables between each other.
  7. Controlled variable
    Any variable that is held constant in a research study.
  8. Between subjects design
    Scores compared between different participants
  9. Random allocation
    Used to increase the likelihood that the broad range of potential will be equally distributed between groups.
  10. Matched participants design
    A researcher may match groups on variables such as age gender to control the effect on this variable.
  11. Quasi Experimental Design
    Aims to establish a cause and effect between and independent and dependent variable.
  12. Within-Subjects Design
    Scores compared within the same participants
  13. Order effect
    Participants responses are effected by the order of conditions to which they were exposed.
  14. Counterbalancing
    Dividing the participants into two groups and have each group perform a slightly different task, so that any imbalance within the task will be cancelled out.
  15. Mixed Design
    A mix of both types of designs used, with both subjects and within subject comparisons.
  16. Repeatability and Reproducibility
    Repeatability- Measured carried out under the same conditions but can someone get the same results again.

    Reproducibility- Measured under changed conditions including a different method of measurement.
  17. Validity
    How well the investigation and its measurements provide meaningful and generalizable information.
  18. Different types of distribution in a Histogram
    Normally distributed, Positively and Negatively skewed
  19. Mean
    Average set of scores calculated by adding all the scores of the data set and then dividing the total number of scores in the set.
  20. Median
    Middle score of the data, by arranging scores from highest to lowest.
  21. Mode
    Most frequently occurring score
  22. Standard deviation
    Measure of variability that the average distance that a set of data points are from the mean.
  23. Large standard deviation
    High variability
  24. Small standard deviation
    Low variability
  25. How do you calculate percentage and percentage change?
    To calculate a percentage you divide the number of the subset by the total number then multiply the result by 100.

    The percentage change is the difference between the two. E.g.- 70%-30%=40%.
  26. True value
    Value or range of values that would be found if a quantity could be measured perfectly
  27. Accuracy and Precision
    Accuracy of a measurement is how close it is to the true value of quantity being measured. Can describe values as more or less accurate.

    • Precision refers to how close a set of measurement values are to each other.
    • E.g.- A questionnaire or brain imaging technique.
  28. Internal validity
    How appropriate the investigation design, sampling and participant allocation is and whether there are extraneous or confounding variables effecting the results.
  29. External validity
    Whether the results of the research can be applied to similar individuals in a different setting.
  30. Types of errors
    • Random-
    • Systematic-
    • Personal-
  31. Outliers
    Data that's further from the rest
  32. Sample size
    Impacts the quality of data, larger sample sizes make it more likely to find a relationship, if one exists. More likely to to be representative of the population.
  33. Possible limitations of conclusions
    Order effect, each participant has to engage in the testing twice.
  34. 5 ethical concepts
    • Autonomy- Feeling able to control your life 
    • Justice- Thoughts and feelings people feel about the value of people and their outcomes 
    • Beneficence- Act of kindness of doing good for others as well as moral obligation
    • Nonmaleficence- Requires researchers to avoid harm to children 
    • Fidelity- The extent to which treatments are delivered as intended
  35. 6 ethical guidelines
    • Confidentiality- When you talk to someone professional they shouldn't tell anyone what you have said 
    • Informed consent- Given someone permission to do something
    • Deception- A researcher giving false information about something, misleading the key aspect of research
    • Debriefing- Providing emotional and psychological support immediately after a traumatic event 
    • Right to withdraw- Ability of a researcher to drop out of their research at any time without a punishment
  36. A controlled experiment
    All variable factors are stayed the same in a experimental group that is changed
  37. Correlational studies
    Examine event exposure, disease prevention and risk factors in a population
  38. Correlation vs Causation
    Correlation is the statistical change between the two and causation is the changes in one variable bringing out the changes in the other, cause and effect between the two.
  39. Positive vs negative correlation
    Positive- The variables move in the same direction

    Negative- The variables move in opposite directions
  40. Case studies
    An in depth investigation
  41. Classification vs Identification
    Classification- Sorting subjects or events into groups or categories

    Identification- Describing something in enough detail so it could be recognized in a given context
  42. Fieldwork
    Observing and interacting with a selected environment beyond the classroom, used when researchers want to capture humans thoughts and feelings in a natural setting.
  43. Modelling
    Creating a mathematical or physical model of the system of concepts, events or processes.
  44. Product, process or system development
    • The design of a process to meet a human need.
    • E.g.- Apps to help you on the daily (Habit tracker)
  45. Literature review
    Survey research on a particular topic
Card Set
Research Methods