ANTH- Test 1 (4)

  1. Evolution
    Change in allele frequencies in a population/ species over time
  2. Mutation (4)
    1. The only way of introducing new genes & new alleles of a gene into a species

    2. Most mutations are harmful or "neutral", through the natural selection advantage or disadvantage is contingent on the environment conditions in which the mutation is expressed phenotypically 

    3. Persistence and spread of a mutation within a population/ species are by natural selection

    4. Mutations are random events. For a mutation to be important in evolution, it has to occur in a sex cell
  3. Classification of mutations based on magnitude of chromosomal change (3)
    • 1. Point mutation
    • 2. Chromosomal rearrangement 
    • 3. Imbalance in chromosome number
  4. Point mutation
    Change in a single nucleotide (due to error in replication)
  5. Results of point mutation (2)
    1. No change in amino acid sequence of the protein; no change in the protein

    2. Change in amino acid sequence of the protein; change is not functionally important ("neutral" mutation")
  6. Mutation is the ultimate source of new _____ and ____ in a species
    genes and alleles
  7. Chromosomal rearrangement
    The position of a gene on a chromosome may be important in its expression. Therefore, if the position of a gene is changed, its phenotypic expression may also be changed
  8. Overview of mutation
    • There are different scales of mutation
    • From change of one nucleotide to am imbalance in chromosome number. The larger the scale of mutation, more likely the greater the phenotype effect

    Mutations may/ may not have phenotypic consequences
  9. Genotype and phenotype: Three issues
    • 1. Phenotypic frequency distributions 
    • 2. Formula for calculating # of genotypes for a polygenic trait 
    • 3. Heritability
  10. Formula for calculating # of genotypes for a polygenic trait
    chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=%5B%5Cfrac%7B(a)%20*(a%2B1)%7D%7B2%7D%5D%5EG&chs=182x76, (G is raised to the power)

    • a= # of alleles of a gene
    • G= # of genes being considered
  11. Heritability
    Proportion of phenotypic variation associated w/ genetic variation

    Heritability = genotype/ phenotype
Card Set
ANTH- Test 1 (4)