
NormReferenced
A score interpretation based on a comparison of a test taker's performance to that of other people
 Relative
 applied to both maximum performance tests and typical response tests

CriterionReferenced
The test taker's performance is compared to a specified level or standard of performance
 Absolute
 maximum performance tests

Characteristics of NOrmal Distribution
 unimodal
 symmetrical
 refereed to as the Gaussian or bellshaped curve
 mean = median

Standard Scores
 linear transformations of raw scores to a scale with a predetermined mean and standard deviation
 retain a direct relationship with the raw scores and the distribution retains its original shape
 reflect interval level measurement
 use standard deviation units to indicate where a subject's score is located relative to the mean of the distribution
 zscores; mean of 0, SD of 1
 TScores: mean of 50, SD of 10
 IQ scores: mean of 100, SD of 15
 CEEB SDcores: mean of 500, SD of 100

Normalized Standard Scores
 1) standard scores based on underlying distributions that were not originally normal, but were transformed into normal distributions
 2) Often involve nonlinear transformations and may not retain a direct relationsihp with the original raw scores
 3) Normlized standard scores are typically interpreted in a manner similar to other standard scores

Percentile Rank
Interpreted as reflecting the percentage of individuals scoring below a given point in a distribution

Quartile Scores
Based on percentile ranks
 The lower 25% receive quartile score of 1
 2650% a quartile score of 2
 5175% a quartile score of 3
 The upper 25% a quartile of 4

Decile Scores
 Divides the distribution of percentile ranks into ten equal parts
 The lowest decile score is 1 corresponds to scores with a percentile ranks between  and 1%
 The highest decile score is 10 and corresponds to scores with percentile ranks between 90 and 100%

Grade Equivalents
Normreferenced score interpretation that identifies the academic "grade level" achieved by the student

Limitations of Grade Equivalents
 1) Based on assumptions that are not accurate in many situations
 2) There is not a predictable relationship between grade equivalents and percentile ranks
 3) A common misperception is that students should receive instruction at the level suggested by their grade equivalents

Age Equivalents
share many of the limitations of Grade Equivalents and as a general rule they should also be avoided

CriterionReferenced Score Interpretations
 1) the examinee's performance is not compared to that of other people, but to a specified level of performance
 2) empasize what the examinee knows or what they can do, not their standing relative to other test takers
 3) the most important consideration is how clearly the knowledge or skill domain is specified or defined
 4) common for tests designed for criterionreferenced interpretations to assess more narrowly focused content domains
 5) Percent Correct: the student correctly answered X% of the questions
 6) Mastery Testing: a "cut score" is established and all scores equal to or above this score are reported as "pass"
 7) Standard Based Interpretations: Not proficient, Partially Proficient, Proficient & Advanced Performances; A, B, C, D, & F

