DH theory

  1. what is HIV 1?
    • pandemic disease caused by infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)
    • it is slow, progressive, and often lethal
  2. where is HIV-2 isolated?
    west africa and europe and north america
  3. how is HIV-1 transmitted?
    • body fluids
    • blood and blood borne products
    • perinatal
    • postnatally
    • sexual
  4. who are high risk individuals for HIV-1?
    • IV drug users
    • recipients of blood transfusions
    • HIV infected organs
    • infants
    • unsafe sex
  5. what is the core genetic material in HIV 1?
  6. what does HIV 1 bind to in a target cell once it has entered the host?
    • CD4 + of
    • t cells
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
    • macrophages
    • certain neurons and glial cells
  7. at what point in the life cycle of HIV 1 is the infection established?
    once the viral DNA enters the hosts nucleous
  8. what is category 1 of HIV-1?
    greater than or equal to 500 count of cd4 + lymphocytes/mm3
  9. what is category 2 of HIV-1?
    200-499 count of cd4 + lymphocytes/mm3
  10. what is category 3 for HIV-1?
    less than 200 count of cd4 +lymphocytes/mm3
  11. what is category A in HIV-1?
  12. what is category B in HIV-1?
  13. what is catgory C in HIV 1?
    AIDS indicator conditions
  14. AIDS indicator conditions
    • cervical cancer
    • cytomegalovirus disease
    • cytomegalovirus retinitis
    • herpes simplex; chronic ulcers
    • kaposi's sarcoma
    • lymphoma
    • mycobacterium tuberculosis
  15. what is the incubation period for HIV-1?
    ranges from time of infection to more than 15 years
  16. what is the acute seroconversion syndrome of HIV?
    the initial infection
  17. what are the usual symptoms of the initial infection of HIV 1 after exposure?
    • flu-like symptoms
    • fever
    • lymphadenopathy
    • pharyngitis
    • fatigue
    • muscle pain
    • skin rash
  18. what are the 3 stages of the HIV disease?
    • early HIV-1 stage
    • intermediate HIV 1 stage
    • late stage disease; AIDS
  19. what are the symptoms of early stage HIV?
    • dermatologic lesions
    • oral lesions are more common in later stages
    • aphthous ulcers
    • herpes simplex labialis
    • hairy leukoplakia
  20. what are the symptoms for intermediate stage of HIV-1?
    • skin and oral lesions
    • recurrent herpes simplex, varicella zoster, fever, weight loss
    • candidiasis
    • myalggias
    • headaches
    • fatigue
  21. what are symptoms of late stage disease of HIV-1 AIDS?
    • opportunistic infections more often and severe
    • wasting syndrome; long-term fever, sever weight loss, anemia, chronic diarrhea, and chronic weakness
    • encephalopathy; dysfunction with sypmtoms of apathy, inability to concentrate, poor memory, and depression
    • neoplasms; kaposi's sarcoma, primary B cell lymphoma of brain, non hodgkins lymphoma
  22. what are the extraoral manifestations of HIV-1?
    • lymphadenopathy
    • skin lesions
  23. what are the intraoral manifestations of HIV-1?
    • fungal infections: candidiasis
    • viral infections: herpes simplex
    • bacterial infections: gingival, periodontal
  24. how is HIV 1 transmitted in children?
    • pernatal
    • breast fed
    • infected blood
    • sexual abuse
  25. what are the clinical manifestations of HIV-1 in children?
    • faster incubation and latent period-months to several years after birth
    • diagnosis- based on blood screenings
    • systemic findings-disorders to nearly every body organ system
    • oral lesions
    • more frequent bacterial infections
    • frequently found conditions
    • failure to thrive, slow development
    • generalized lymphadenopathy
    • hepatomegaly, splenomegaly
    • chronic pneumonitis
    • progressive encephalpothy
  26. what are some oral findings that indicate HIV-1 in children?
    • oral lesions
    • candidiasis
    • herpetic gingivostomatitis
    • apthous ulcers
    • hairy leukoplakia
    • linear gingival erythema
    • NUG
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DH theory