1. manipulation of independent variable (IV)
2. random assignment which creates probabilistically equivalent groups
3. control in comparison group
3 necessary conditions for a "true experiment"
summarizes the strength (closeness to 1) and direction of two variables.
1. quick, easy, and efficient
2. sometimes not practical/ethical to manipulate
3. allow us to examine real life relationships between variables or on going events.
Advantages of correlation method
- Temporary Causes, Nonverbal 1. face
- 6 universal facial expressions
(eye contact reduces psychological distance) lack of eye contact, unfriendly and uncomfortable
# 2 eyes
reduces phycological distance, positive and negative
strategically =>power + dominance
people of high status are twice as highly to touch people of lower status
(e.g. teacher putting their hand on students back)
1. adaptors "self touching"
2. eye contact-change in normal
3. voice pitch up
4. micro-expressions (for a split second before smiling they frown)
5. sentence repairs (went to a movie...went to a movie ....with joe)
6. inconsistency across multiple channels
#4 Detection of lying
- attributes - inferences we make about peoples behavior, the answer to the question why?
- we can make inferences about our own behavior.
father of attribution theory
1. Freely chosen behaviors
2. low in social desireability
3. behaviors that produce non-common or unique events
Correspondent Inference Theory Diagnosticy
happens outside of conscious awareness
deal with the way we process info "cold" (e.g. attention)
- phycological needs motivess
- self esteem
- belongingness "hot"
- occurs with multiple causes for an outcome
- (e.g. reasons for getting an "A" studying, intelligence, luck)
The fundamental attribution error
is the tendency for perceivers to make dispositional attributions about the causes of another, behavior in the face of strong situaltional restraints.
Gilber pelham and krull
anchor-the behavior serves as an anchor
ajust-we process a little info about situation but does not ajust significantly
1. cognitive capacity
in order to not make the bias
network of knowledge