what are the general characteristics of herpesvirus disease, I-VII
- latent, recurrent, malignant
- opportunistic in AIDS
regarding HHV1, when antibodies are produced for this disease, do they guarantee immunity to recurent herpes or other herpes infections?
When does the primary herpes simplex virus type 1 usually occur?
in children, but may occur at any age
__________________can serve as a reservoir for the herpes simplex virus.
where is anti HSV present?
in the gingival sulcus fluid
what can happen during the dental or dental hygiene appointment that may bring about herpetic recurrence?
trauma to the oral cavity
describe the primary infection of HHV1 herpetic gingivostomatits
it may be mild and isolated to marginal and attached gingiva
describe the full blown herpetic gingovostomatitis of HHV1
presents with widespread oral ulcers that also may involve the pharyngeal areas
what are the most frequent manifestations of HHV1 when clinical disease is evident?
gingivostomatitis and pharyngitis
what are the symptoms of HHV1?
- inability to eat
- lymphadenopathy for 2-7 days
- painful oral vesicular lesions may occur on the gingiva, mucosa, tongue, and lips
describe a subclinical carrier of HHV1
- reactivation from the trigeminal ganglia may be followed by asymptomatic excretion of the viruses in the saliva.
- reactivation may also lead to herpetic ulcerations of the lip, or cold sore
what is herpes labialis? and what type of virus causes it?
- cold sores, leisures, or blisters
- caused by HSV1 or HSV2
herpes labialis are usually recurrent lesions, what triggers these recurrances?
- dental appointment
what is prodrome?
a burning or slight stinging sensation with a slight swelling as a forewarning before the local lesion of herpes labialis appears
where do herpes labialis appear?
- at the vermillion border of lower lip
what are 4 characteristics of herpes labialis?
- group of vesicles that form and eventually rupture
- crusting follows, and healing may take up to 10 days
- the lesions are infectious so they can spread to other people, or other areas on the pt
what is herpetic whitlow?
- herpes simplex infection of the fingers that results from the virus entering through minor skin abrasions. usually around the finger nail where cracks occur
how is herpetic whitlow transmitted?
- HSV1 or HSV2 recurren infection
- direct contact with a vesicular lesion on pts lip, or with saliva that contains theses viruses
- autoinfection from a lip or intraoral herpetic lesion is possible while nail biting
what are the best ways to prevent herpetic whitlow?
- following standard precautions
- because of standard precautions, this type of infection is nearly extinct anyways
what is ocular herpes?
- HHV1 type
- herpes simplex in the eyes, and can be primary or recurrent of HSV1 or HSV2
How is ocular herpes transmitted?
- splashing saliva or fluid from a vesicular lesion directly into an unprotected eye
- extension of infection from a facial lesion
- invection of an infant's eye in utero or during birth
what are symptoms of ocular herpes?
- fever, pain, blurring of vision, swelling, excess tears, and secondary bacterial infection
- herpes keratoconjunctivitis can cause deep inflammation and when left untreated, is a leading cause of loss of sight
what is the best way to prevent ocular herpes?
- standard precautions
- eye protection
what type of herpes is genital herpes?
what must you do if a pt has HSV2?
- check pt history
- postpone appointment if they have it, because it can be contagious even in the prodrome stage, and irritation to any of the lesions can increase the severity of the infection
what is used to treat HHV2?
what is HHV3?
varicella-zoster virus (VZV) chicken pox
describe the chicken pox
- it is highly contagious
- can be transmitted directly or indirectly
describe the disease process of chicken pox
- primarily a disease of children
- it can be life threatening to children who are immunocompromised
- if this infection is introduced to the fetus it can cause congenital malformations
how is HHV3 characterized?
- by a maculopapular rash that becomes vesicular in a few days, and then scabs
- oral lesions may occur and spread into the upper respiratory tract
- if the itchy, crusted lesions of the skin are scratched, a secondary bacterial infection can result
what is the name of the recurrent infection of chicken pox? or HHV3?
chicken pox leaves a lasting immunity, but the VZV remains latent in the______________.
dorsal root ganglia
what are some causes of reactivation for HHV3?
- drug therapy
- HIV infection
- advanced neoplastic disease
describe the disease process of shingles disease
- localized unilateral eruptions associated with the nerve endings of the area innervated by the infected sensory nerves
- intraoral lesions may occur when the second division of the trigeminal nerve is involved
what is the ebstein barr virus?
- infectious mononucleosis
who does EBV usually infect? what is it's nickname because of this?
- teeangers and young adults
- kissing virus
what are some sypmtoms of HBV?
fever, lympadenopathy, sore throat
what is Hairy leucoplakia?
- EBV replicates
- associated with AIDS
- tongue lesions
who is usually affected by cytomegalovirus?
- childhood problems
how is cytomegalovirus usually transmitted?
- blood transfusion
- post transplant
- respiratory droplet
describe cytomegalovirus infection in adults
- it is rare
- reactivated from before
- a serious complication of AIDS
what are some ways to prevent cytomegalovirus?
- personal hygiene
- standard precautions
- check seropositivity before surgeries
what is herpes lymphotrophic virus? (HLV)
- a widespread childhood infection that depresses the immune system
- shows a high temperature and rash
- it has a latent form and can be reactivated
- human herpes virus 7
- prevalent in general populations
- reactivation is common in immunocomprimised people
- gingival tissue may serve as a reservoir for this infection in healthy and diseased tissue
- kaposi's sarcoma related virus (KSRV)
- it is considered an AIDS defining lesion