DH theory

  1. what are the general characteristics of herpesvirus disease, I-VII
    • latent, recurrent, malignant
    • reactivation
    • opportunistic in AIDS
  2. regarding HHV1, when antibodies are produced for this disease, do they guarantee immunity to recurent herpes or other herpes infections?
  3. When does the primary herpes simplex virus type 1 usually occur?
    in children, but may occur at any age
  4. __________________can serve as a reservoir for the herpes simplex virus.
    sulcular epithelium
  5. where is anti HSV present?
    in the gingival sulcus fluid
  6. what can happen during the dental or dental hygiene appointment that may bring about herpetic recurrence?
    trauma to the oral cavity
  7. describe the primary infection of HHV1 herpetic gingivostomatits
    it may be mild and isolated to marginal and attached gingiva
  8. describe the full blown herpetic gingovostomatitis of HHV1
    presents with widespread oral ulcers that also may involve the pharyngeal areas
  9. what are the most frequent manifestations of HHV1 when clinical disease is evident?
    gingivostomatitis and pharyngitis
  10. what are the symptoms of HHV1?
    • fever
    • malaise
    • inability to eat
    • lymphadenopathy for 2-7 days
    • painful oral vesicular lesions may occur on the gingiva, mucosa, tongue, and lips
  11. describe a subclinical carrier of HHV1
    • reactivation from the trigeminal ganglia may be followed by asymptomatic excretion of the viruses in the saliva.
    • reactivation may also lead to herpetic ulcerations of the lip, or cold sore
  12. what is herpes labialis? and what type of virus causes it?
    • cold sores, leisures, or blisters
    • caused by HSV1 or HSV2
  13. herpes labialis are usually recurrent lesions, what triggers these recurrances?
    • stress
    • sunlight
    • illness
    • trauma
    • dental appointment
  14. what is prodrome?
    a burning or slight stinging sensation with a slight swelling as a forewarning before the local lesion of herpes labialis appears
  15. where do herpes labialis appear?
    • at the vermillion border of lower lip
    • intraorally
  16. what are 4 characteristics of herpes labialis?
    • group of vesicles that form and eventually rupture
    • crusting follows, and healing may take up to 10 days
    • the lesions are infectious so they can spread to other people, or other areas on the pt
  17. what is herpetic whitlow?
    • HHV1type
    • herpes simplex infection of the fingers that results from the virus entering through minor skin abrasions. usually around the finger nail where cracks occur
  18. how is herpetic whitlow transmitted?
    • HSV1 or HSV2 recurren infection
    • direct contact with a vesicular lesion on pts lip, or with saliva that contains theses viruses
    • autoinfection from a lip or intraoral herpetic lesion is possible while nail biting
  19. what are the best ways to prevent herpetic whitlow?
    • following standard precautions
    • because of standard precautions, this type of infection is nearly extinct anyways
  20. what is ocular herpes?
    • HHV1 type
    • herpes simplex in the eyes, and can be primary or recurrent of HSV1 or HSV2
  21. How is ocular herpes transmitted?
    • splashing saliva or fluid from a vesicular lesion directly into an unprotected eye
    • extension of infection from a facial lesion
    • invection of an infant's eye in utero or during birth
  22. what are symptoms of ocular herpes?
    • fever, pain, blurring of vision, swelling, excess tears, and secondary bacterial infection
    • herpes keratoconjunctivitis can cause deep inflammation and when left untreated, is a leading cause of loss of sight
  23. what is the best way to prevent ocular herpes?
    • standard precautions
    • eye protection
  24. what type of herpes is genital herpes?
    HHV2 (HSV2)
  25. what must you do if a pt has HSV2?
    • check pt history
    • postpone appointment if they have it, because it can be contagious even in the prodrome stage, and irritation to any of the lesions can increase the severity of the infection
  26. what is used to treat HHV2?
  27. what is HHV3?
    varicella-zoster virus (VZV) chicken pox
  28. describe the chicken pox
    • it is highly contagious
    • can be transmitted directly or indirectly
  29. describe the disease process of chicken pox
    • primarily a disease of children
    • it can be life threatening to children who are immunocompromised
    • if this infection is introduced to the fetus it can cause congenital malformations
  30. how is HHV3 characterized?
    • by a maculopapular rash that becomes vesicular in a few days, and then scabs
    • oral lesions may occur and spread into the upper respiratory tract
    • if the itchy, crusted lesions of the skin are scratched, a secondary bacterial infection can result
  31. what is the name of the recurrent infection of chicken pox? or HHV3?
  32. chicken pox leaves a lasting immunity, but the VZV remains latent in the______________.
    dorsal root ganglia
  33. what are some causes of reactivation for HHV3?
    • immunosupression
    • drug therapy
    • HIV infection
    • advanced neoplastic disease
  34. describe the disease process of shingles disease
    • localized unilateral eruptions associated with the nerve endings of the area innervated by the infected sensory nerves
    • intraoral lesions may occur when the second division of the trigeminal nerve is involved
  35. what is the ebstein barr virus?
    • (EBV)
    • HHV4
    • infectious mononucleosis
  36. who does EBV usually infect? what is it's nickname because of this?
    • teeangers and young adults
    • kissing virus
  37. what are some sypmtoms of HBV?
    fever, lympadenopathy, sore throat
  38. what is Hairy leucoplakia?
    • HHV4
    • EBV replicates
    • associated with AIDS
    • tongue lesions
  39. what is cytomegalovirus?
    • (HCMV)
    • HHV5
  40. who is usually affected by cytomegalovirus?
    • neonatal
    • childhood problems
  41. how is cytomegalovirus usually transmitted?
    • excreted
    • blood transfusion
    • post transplant
    • respiratory droplet
    • sexual
  42. describe cytomegalovirus infection in adults
    • it is rare
    • reactivated from before
    • a serious complication of AIDS
  43. what are some ways to prevent cytomegalovirus?
    • personal hygiene
    • standard precautions
    • check seropositivity before surgeries
  44. what is herpes lymphotrophic virus? (HLV)
    • HHV6
    • a widespread childhood infection that depresses the immune system
    • shows a high temperature and rash
    • it has a latent form and can be reactivated
  45. describe HHV7
    • human herpes virus 7
    • prevalent in general populations
    • reactivation is common in immunocomprimised people
    • gingival tissue may serve as a reservoir for this infection in healthy and diseased tissue
  46. describe HHV8
    • kaposi's sarcoma related virus (KSRV)
    • it is considered an AIDS defining lesion
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DH theory