Vertebrate Integumentary System (Part 2)

  1. Two main types of glands in the skin:
    • 1. Sudoriferous glands
    • 2. Sebaceous glands
  2. Four types of sudoriferous (sweat) glands:
    • 1. Eccrine sweat glands
    • 2. Apocrine sweat glands
    • 3. Ceruminous glands
    • 4. Mammary glands
  3. Released through sweat pores.
    Eccrine sweat glands
  4. Release watery secretions in evaporative cooling
    Eccrine sweat glands
  5. Produces sweat that contains antimicrobial compounds to prevent the growth of pathogens.
    Eccrine sweat glands
  6. Also function in thermoregulation
    Eccrine sweat glands
  7. Active over most of the body in horses, bears, and humans.
    Eccrine sweat glands
  8. In other animals (dogs, cats, cattle, and sheep) they are active only on the pads of the paws or along the lip margins and may be entirely absent over the rest of the body (such animals depend on panting for effective temperature control)
    Eccrine sweat glands
  9. Smaller animals such as rodents cannot endure dehydration and hence possess no eccrine glands.
    Eccrine sweat glands
  10. Sweat released into hair pores.
    Apocrine sweat glands
  11. Only in certain parts of the body such as the armpits, areolas, and the anal area.
    Apocrine swear glands
  12. Sweat metabolized by bacteria which produces an odor.
    Apocrine sweat glands
  13. Release a mixture of salt, urea, and water, which microorganisms on the skin convert to odorous products.
    Apocrine sweat glands
  14. Associated with the presence of hair in human beings (as on the scalp, armpit, and genital region)
    Apocrine sweat glands
  15. Continuously secrete a concentrated fatty sweat into the gland tube.
    Apocrine sweat glands
  16. Skin bacteria break down the fats into ________ that possess a pungent odor.
    • In apocrine sweat glands
    • Unsaturated fatty acids
  17. Secretes a thick fluid called cerumen (earwax) into hair follicles.
    Ceruminous glands
  18. Cerumen also known as ______.
  19. _______ lines the ears and functions to lubricate the eardrum.
  20. Cerumen lines the ears and functions to _______.
    Lubricate the eardrum
  21. Involved in skin problems such as acne and keratosis pilaris.
    Ceruminous glands
  22. A blocked sebaceous gland.
  23. ______, also known by the medical term ______, is a yellowish, waxy substance secreted in the ear canal of humans and many other mammals.
    Earwax, cerumen
  24. It plays a vital role in the human ear canal, assisting in cleaning and lubrication, and also provides some protection from bacteria, fungus, and insects.
    Earwax or cerumen
  25. Produces sweat called milk.
    Mammary glands
  26. Contains proteins, lipids, sugars, and immune cells to nourish a newborn.
  27. Milk contains ____ to nourish a newborn.
    Proteins, lipids, sugars, and immune cells
  28. These exocrine glands are enlarged and modified sweat glands and are the characteristics of mammals which gave the class its name.
    Mammary glands
  29. ___ are branched glands with clusters of small ducts surrounded by secretory cells called ____.
    Sebaceous glands, acini cells
  30. The ducts empty a waxy oily liquid called _____ into either a _____ or through a small pore.
    Sebum (oil), hair follicle
  31. They function to coat the skin and hair with moisture.
    Sebum (oil)
  32. Produce sebum (oil)
    Sebaceous glands
  33. In _____, acini cell will accumulate products such as ____ and different types of ____ until it ruptures. However, some bacteria can thrive in sebum, causing _____.
    • Sebaceous secretions
    • Dead cells, lipids
    • A pimple or bump
  34. Secrete their product using ______, in which the secretory cell (acini cell) accumulates its product until ruptures occur.
    • Sebaceous glands
    • Holocrine secretion
  35. Have tiny ducts that open into each hair follicle.
    Sebaceous glands
  36. Also called oil glands.
    Sebaceous glands
  37. The amount of secretion varies with ____.
    Age, puberty, and pregnancy
  38. Are hard structures located at the end of our digits that contain _____.
    Nails, hard keratin
  39. Function of the nails
    To protect our underlying tissue and enable gripping and manipulation
  40. ______ are hard keratin structures that protect the ends of the fingers and toes.
    Fingernails and toenails
  41. Fingernails and toenails are ______ structures that protect the ends of the finger and toes.
    Hard keratin
  42. Also called germinal matrix or nail bed.
    Nail root
  43. Begins several millimeters into the finger and extends to the edgge of the white, crescent-shaped ______.
    Nail root or germinal matrix or nail bed
  44. This is where the growth occurs approximately 0.5mm-1mm per week.
    Nail root or germinal matrix or nail bed
  45. The under-surface of the nail plate or body of the nail has _____ that help anchor it.
  46. Also called cuticle
  47. It fuses the nail plate and the skin of the finger together to form a waterproof barrier.
    Eponychium or cuticle
  48. Is under the free edge of the nail.
  49. Also creates a waterproof barrier, fusing the skin of the finger to the underside of the nail plate.
  50. Modification of the epidermis.
  51. Flat, horny plates (fingers and toes)
  52. Claws and hooves
    Reptiles, birds, and mammals
  53. Exaggerated nails
  54. Horns (not the antler, made of bone and not formed in the epidermis)
    Sheep, goats, and cattle
  55. Baleen plates
  56. One of the most common conditions of the nail.
    Ingrown nail
  57. Usually occur in the toenail (big toe)
    Ingrown nail
  58. A condition in which the nail grows into the tissue medial or lateral to the nail.
    Ingrown nail
  59. Happens when the corner of edge of your toenail curves and grows into the surrounding skin.
    Ingrown nail
  60. Symptoms of an ingrown nail:
    Pain, inflammation, redness, swelling, softening of the nail, and sometimes infection
  61. Ingrown nail can be treated by _____.
    The removal of the nail or by administering chemicals to the matrix of the nail to kill off the cells.
  62. Common causes of an ingrown nail:
    • 1. Toenail trauma, such as stubbing your toe
    • 2. Wearing shoes that are too tight
    • 3. Cutting toenails too short
    • 4. Cutting toenails at an angle
  63. Part of the nail that rests on top of the epidermal nail bed.
    Nail plate
  64. Deep to the nail plate, nourishes and protects the nail.
    Nail bed
  65. Visible part of the nail.
    Nail body
  66. With living, dividing cells. Supplies oxygen to the nail, sight of nail growth.
    Nail matrix
  67. Covers the edge of the root.
    Proximal nail fold
  68. Also known as the cuticle
  69. Found at the base of the nail
  70. Protects matrix from infection
  71. Overlapping of skin that borders the nail laterally and medially.
    Nail folds
  72. Skin that lies under the free edge of the nail
  73. Crescent-shaped area where keratin accumulates.
  74. Integumentary of birds consist of the _____.
    Skin, feathers, and the appendages (claws and beak)
  75. Bird's skin is divided into:
    • 1. Feathered skin
    • 2. Scale-covered skin (lower legs and feet)
    • 3. Hard, horny areas of the beak and toenails
    • 4. Pad of the foot (or plantar) and skin of the comb and wattles
  76. Areas where feathered skin do grow.
  77. Areas where feathered skin do not grow.
  78. Bird's skin on the lower legs and feet
    Scale-covered skin
  79. Bird's skin on the beak and toenails
    Hard, horny areas
  80. The stratum corneum is thick, lacks glands, and is modified into sclaes/scutes (thick scales), beaks in turtles, rattles on snakes, claws, plaques, and spiny crests on others.
    Reptile Skin
  81. Thick, keratinized layer, functions in protection, slows down dehydration and resists abrasions.
    Reptile Skin
  82. The dermis is provided with chromatophores.
    Reptile skin
  83. The dermis of reptile skin is provided with _____, color bearing cells that give many lizards and snakes their colorful hues.
  84. Skin has no respiratory functions
    Reptile skin
  85. Skin does not secrete pheromones that function in sex recognition and defense.
    Reptile skin
  86. Is also known as ecdysis.
    Molting process
  87. No blood supply in the epidermis, therefore the outer epidermal layers lose contact with the blood supply and die.
    Molting process
  88. Typically begins around the head and come off in one piece (snakes and most lizards) and in little pieces (skin simply flakes off).
  89. Reptiles such as _____, shed or molt the outer layer of the epidermis, diffusion of fluid between the layers assists in this _____.
    • Snakes and lizards
    • Molting process
  90. Are transitional between aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates.
  91. Contain epidermis with thin stratum corneum and very little keratin; Leydig cells; dermis with chromatophores, poison glands, and mucous glands.
    Amphibian skin
  92. The mucous glands prevent ______, aid in gas exchange, and make the body slimy; which is advantageous when trying to escape predators.
    Amphibian skin, desiccation
  93. Scales are rare
    Amphibian skin
  94. Types of scales:
    • 1. Cycloid scales
    • 2. Ctenoid scales
    • 3. Ganoid scales
    • 4. Placoid scales
  95. Concentric ridges (milkfish)
    Cycloid scales
  96. With spines or ctenii
    Ctenoid scales
  97. Rhomboid shape
    Ganoid scales
  98. Spines directed caudally (sharks, skates)
    Placoid scales
  99. Skin is permeable and functions in gas exchange.
    Bony fish
  100. Epidermis also has mucous glands (prevents bacterial and fungal infections, as well as reduces friction when the fish swims) and granular glands (secrete an irritating/poisonous alkaloid)
    Bony fish
  101. The skin of _____ contains scales (cycloid, ctenoid, ganoid)
    Bony fishes
  102. _____ are composed of dermal bone and are not shed; grow at the margins and over the lower surface; have growth rings (used to age fish).
  103. Sharks and rays are ____.
    Cartilaginous fish
  104. Skin is covered in placoid scales (bony, spiny projections with an enamel-like covering) or dermal denticles, tooth-like scales different from the flat scales found on bony fish.
    Cartilaginous fish
  105. The dermal denticles is structurally homologous with vertebrate teeth.
    Cartilaginous fish
  106. Placoid scales do not grow with the animal; they are of a single size. Instead, when the animal grows, space opens up and new denticles grow to fill.
    Cartilaginous fish
  107. The scales/denticles of _____ are discrete, they do not overlap as do the scales of bony fishes.
    Catilaginous fish
  108. Sandpaper texture
    Cartilaginous fish
  109. The most common type of skin pathology.
  110. Any disruption of the skin's integrity.
  111. They may disrupt the epidermis, dermis, or deeper.
  112. Different kinds of wounds:
    • 1. Lacerations (cut)
    • 2. Burns
    • 3. Skin cancers
  113. A laceration may be treated with _____, whereas a burn may be treated with _____.
    • Sutures (stitches)
    • Surgical repair
  114. Common diseases and disorders of the skin:
    • 1. Burns
    • 2. Skin cancer
    • 3. Albinism
    • 4. Boils and carbuncles
    • 5. Contact dermatitis
    • 6. Psoriasis
    • 7. Rosacea
    • 8. Vitiligo
  115. A skin wound caused by heat, extreme cold, chemicals, and/or radiation.
  116. Types of burns:
    First degree burns, second degree burns, third degree burns
  117. Only the epidermis is damaged with redness (erythema), swelling, and minor pain.
    First-degree burn
  118. Most minor, also called superficial burns.
    First degree burns
  119. Usually rewuire no treatment, no blisters, no permanent damage.
    First degree burns
  120. The epidermis and upper region of the dermis is involved.
    Second degree burns
  121. Also called partial thickness burns
    Second-degree burns
  122. Symptoms are pain, blistering, and scarring
    Second degree burns
  123. Usually require medical treatment
    Second degree burns
  124. All layers of the skin burned (most severe)
    Third degree burns
  125. Skin graft is necessary to repair. Skin looks cherry red or blacken.
    Third degree burns
  126. Most damaging kind of burn
    Third degree burns
  127. Also known as full thickness burn
    Third degree burns
  128. Muscle and bone may be damaged
    Third degree burns
  129. Symptoms: severe scarring, lost of hair follicles, and dehydration due to fluid loss.
    Third degree burns
  130. Treatment may result in skin grafting
    Third degree burns
  131. Most skin tumors are ____.
  132. Cause of cancer is unknown, but probably due to overexposure to UV radiation of the sun.
    Skin cancer
  133. A very common skin disease
    Skin cancer
  134. Caused by mutations in the DNA that cause cells to lose control over their cell cycle.
    Skin cancer
  135. Three main types of skin cancer:
    • 1. Basal cell carcinoma
    • 2. Squamous cell carcinoma
    • 3. Malignant melanoma
  136. Most common type of skin tumor; usually benign
    Basal cell carcinoma
  137. Cells of stratum basale are affected, as they cannot form keratin and begin to invade into the dermis.
    Basal cell carcinoma
  138. A cancer of keratinocytes
    Basal cell carcinoma
  139. Arises from keratinocytes in stratum spinosum
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  140. Mostly in the scalp, ears, or hands
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  141. Grows and migrates rapidly
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  142. Cancer of the melanocytes in stratum basale
    Malignant melanoma
  143. Most dangerous and usually deadly
    Malignant melanoma
  144. Only 5% of all skin cancer, but the frequency is increasing.
    Malignant melanoma
  145. Grow and migrates extremely rapidly.
    Malignant melanoma
  146. To avoid these skin tumors...
    We are advised to stay away from the sun during its most intense period (10 am to 2 pm)
  147. Inherited, melanocytes do not produce melanin.
  148. Inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, infection spread to dermis.
    Boils and carbuncles
  149. Itching and redness and swelling forming blisters. It is caused by chemical burns.
    Contact dermatitis
  150. Characterized by reddened epidermal lesions covered by dry silvery scales.
  151. Redness of the skin around eyes and nose accompanied by rash-like lesions, it gets worse with alcohol, hot water, and spicy food.
  152. Skin pigmentation disorder caused by loss of melanocytes and uneven dispersal of melanin (unpigmented skin surrounded by normally pigmented areas)
Card Set
Vertebrate Integumentary System (Part 2)