Bio1 (1).txt

  1. Euglenoids
    • 1-4 flagella
    • Cell wall made of thib protein strip called pellicles wrap over cell membrane
    • Heterotrophic in absence of light
    • Have an eyespot that permits the abiliry to move in response to light (phototaxis)
    • Kingdom Protista. Domain Eukarya
  2. Dinoflagellates
    • Have 2 flagella.1 posterior and 2nd is transverse
    • Bioluminescent
    • Produce nerve toxins that concentrstr in fikter feeding shellfish which cause illness in humans when eaten
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  3. Diatoms
    • Have tests (shells)
    • Shell consists of silica (SiO2)
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  4. Brown algae
    • Multicellular and have flagellate sperm cells
    • Giant seaweed or kelp
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  5. Rhodophyta
    • Red algae
    • Contain phycobilins- red accessry pigment
    • Multicellular and their gametes do not have flagella
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  6. Chlorophyta
    • Green algae
    • Both chlorophyll a and b
    • Have cellulose cell wall
    • Store carbohydrates as starch
    • Isogamous-egg and sperm are motile and equal in size
    • Ansiogamous-sperm and eg differ in size
    • Oogamous-large egg remains with parent and fertilzed by a motile sperm
    • Believe to be ancestors of plants
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  7. Protozoa
    • Animal likd protists
    • Heterotrophs
    • Consume living things or dead organic matter
  8. Rhizopodia
    • Protozoa
    • Amoeba that move by extensions of their cell body called pseudopodia
    • Pseudopodia encircle food and absorb by phagocytosis
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  9. Foraminifera
    • Foram
    • Protozoa
    • Have tests made of calcium carbonate
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  10. Apicomplexans
    • Protozoa
    • Parasites of animals
    • Apical complex-conplex of organelles located at the end of the cell
    • No mean of motility
    • Form spores which are dispersed by one or more hosts thay participatr ib the completion of theit life cycles
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  11. Ciliates
    • Protozoa
    • Distinguished by their cilia which is used for moving
    • Have a mouth,anal pore,contractile vacuole,two nuclei, and other features
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
    • Paramecium
  12. Fungus like
    Protisys that resemble fungi because they form either filaments or spore bearing bodies similar to the fungi
  13. Cellular slime mold
    • Both fungus like and protozoalike characteristics
    • Spores germinate into amoebas which feed on bacteria
    • When food source is depleted amoebas aggregate into a single unit which migrates into a slug. The cells then form a stalk woth a capsule at the top similar to spore bearing fungi.spores are released and then repeat the cycle when they germinate
    • Stimulus for aggregation is cAMP which is secreted by amoebas that experience food deprivation
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  14. Plasmodial slime mold
    • Fungus like
    • Grow as a single spreading mass feeding on vegetation
    • Food unavailable or when the environment dries up..stalks bearing capdules form
    • Haplod spores are released from the capsule germinate into haploid amoeboid or flagellated cells which fuse to form a diploid cell.
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  15. Oomycota
    • Fungus like.Water mold,downy mildee,white rust.Parasites or saprobes
    • Form filaments (hyphae) which secrete enzymes thay digest the surrounding substances. Lack septa or cross walls
    • Considered coenocytic which is containing manh nuclei within a single cell
    • Cell wall of oonmycota are made of cellulose
    • Kingdom protista.domain eukarya
  16. Kingdom Fungi
    • fungi grow as filaments called hyphae
    • a mass of hyphae is called mycelium
    • some fungi have septa or cross walls which divide the filament into compartments containing a single nucleus
    • when filaments lack septa, they are multinucleate or coenocytic
    • cell walls of fungi consist of chitin a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide
    • fungi are either parasites or saprobes, absorbing the breakdown products from the action of digestive enzymes that they secrete
    • parasitic hyphae called haustoria that penetrate host
  17. Plasmogamy
    • fusing of cells from two different fungi strains to produce a single cell with nuclei from both strains
    • a pair of haploid nuclei, one from each strain, is called a dikaryon
    • a hypha containing a dikaryon is called dikaryotic hypha
  18. Karyogamy
    fusing of the two haplod nuclei of a dikaryon to form a single diploid nucleus
  19. Meiosis
    • diploid nucleus restores the haploid condition
    • daughter cells develop into haploid spores, which germinate and form haploid hyphae
  20. Sexual reproduction of Fungi
    • 1.Plasmogamy
    • 2.Karyogamy
    • 3.Meiosis
  21. fungi asexual reproduction
    • fragmentation-breaking up of hyphae
    • budding-pinching off of a small hyphal outgrowth
    • asexual spores: Sporangiospores and Conidia
  22. Sporangiospores
    produce in saclike capsules called sporangia that are each borne on a stalk called sporangiophore
  23. Conidia
    • formed at the tips of specializzed hyphae not enclosed inside sacs
    • hyphae bearing conidia are called conidiophores
  24. zygomycota
    • lack septa except when filaments border reproductive filaments
    • reproduce sexually by fusion of hyphae from different strains followed by plasmogamy, karyogamy, meiosis
    • haploid zygospores are produced which germinate into new hyphae
    • ex. bread mold
  25. glomeromycota
    • lack septa but do not produce zygospores
    • they are a small group of fungi that occur only in mutualistic associations with roots of plants
    • fungus-root relationships, mycorrhizae, the plant provides carbohydrates to the fungus and the fungus increases the ability of the plant roots to absorb nutrients especially phosphorus
  26. ascomycota
    • have septa and reproduce sexually by producing haploid ascospores
    • after plasmogamy of hyphae from unlike strains a dikaryotic hypha produces more filaments by mitosis
    • karyogamy and meiosis subsequently occur in terminal hyphal cells producing four haploid cells
    • 4 cells divide by mitosis to produce 8 haploid ascospores in a sac called an ascus
    • asci are grouped together into a specialized fruiting boy the ascocarp
    • ex. yeasts, powdry mildews, and truffles
  27. basidiomycota
    • have septa and reproduce sexually by producing haploid basidiospores
    • plasmogamy between two unlike hyphae is followed by mitosis and the growth of dikaryotic hyphae to form a fruiting body called a basidiocap
    • karyogamy occus in terminal hyphal cells called basidia followed by meiosis and production of 4 haploid basidiospores
    • ex. mushroom
    • Kingdom Fungi
  28. Deuteromycota
    • imperfect fungi
    • an artificial group comprising fungi for which no sexual reproductive cycle
    • Penicillium
  29. Lichens
    • mutualistic association between fungi and algae
    • algae which is usually chlorophyta or cyanobacteria provides sugar from photosynthesis
    • nitrogen compounds are also provided if the algae is nitrogen fixing
    • fungi produce pigments that shield algae from UV radiation or excess light, or toxic substances that discourage algae consumption by grazers
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Bio1 (1).txt