Sociology Notes Edited

  1. Science
    systematic study of the structure and behavior of the world. Two parts to how we study (observation & experiment)
  2. Sociological perspective
    Belief that people's social backgrounds influence their attitudesbehaviors, & life changes.
  3. The Debunking Motif
    Theme of sociology where aim is to:

    • a) go beyond superficial
    • understandings of social reality
    • b) in order to see deeper meanings of social reality
  4. Social Structure
    Social patterns through which society is organized
  5. Horizontal SS
    The social relationship & social and physical characteristics of communities to which individuals belong
  6. Vertical SS
    Term used interchangeably with social inequality
  7. Sociology emphasizes that individual problems are rooted from ____ and ____ social structures
    Horizontal and Vertical
  8. Sociological imagination
    Realization that personal troubles are rooted in public issues
  9. Macrosociology
    Part of sociology that deals with issues involving large-scale social change & social institutions
  10. Microsociology
    Part of sociology that deals with social interaction in small settings
  11. Theory
    Idea used to explain complex situations with many parts

    - (Not been empirically tested)
  12. Socialization
    Process of learning to behave in a way that is acceptable to society
  13. Functionalism is ___ theory
  14. Emile Durkheim
    Largely responsible for the sociological perspective as we now know it
  15. Strong collective conscience
    socialization and social integration help establish a strong set of social rules that is needed for a stable society

    (Said by Emile Durkheim)
  16. anomie
    Periods of rapid social change (breakdown of social norms)
  17. Social norms
    INFORMAL rules of conduct that govern the behavior of the members of a society
  18. Conflict theory is ___
    macro theory
  19. Symbolic Interactionalism
    a theory that focusses on the interaction of individuals and on how they interpret this interaction
  20. Utilitarianism (rational choice theory or exchange theory)
    Ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes
  21. Problems with functionalist theory (macro)
    1) Supports the status quo

    2) Minimizes the way in which social institutions contribute to social inequality
  22. Problems with conflict theory (macro)
    1) Overlooks important issues

    b) minimizes the ways in which social institutions are necessary for society's stability
  23. Problems with symbolic interactionism & utilitarianism (micro)
    1) Pays little attention to important macro issues as economic inequality 

    2) Ignores the importance of emptions and values such as altruism
  24. Facts are ___, Opinions are ____
    • Facts are OBJECTIVE
    • Opinions are SUBJECTIVE
  25. Subjective
    Based on personal preference
  26. Objective
    Not influenced by personal preference
  27. The Scientific Method (5 steps)
    • Observation
    • Hypothesis
    • Experimentation
    • Data analysis
    • Conclusion
  28. Observation
    gaining knowledge of outside world through our senses

    (Recording any info using scientific tools & data (any info recorded) during an experiment)
  29. What are the two choices when deciding the outcome of your hypothesis?
    • You can "REJECT" the hypothesis
    • You can "NOT REJECT" the hypothesis
  30. Advantages of Peer Review
  31. Disadvantages of Peer Review
    Can cause lengthy delays in the research findings

    It is a time-consuming process

    Accused of protecting established opinions

    May not prevent the publication of poor research
  32. Why are there no laws in sociology?
    Humans have FREE WILL which makes predicting behavior impossible
  33. The Media
    Media oversimplify complex topics and distort what the best evidence from systematic research seems to be telling us
  34. Expert Authorities
    Includes teachers, parents, gov officials

    Does not always mean they give us a true complete picture of social reality
  35. Tradition
    • Traditional ways of thinking about social reality sometimes turns out to be inaccurate & incomplete
    • (The US used to believe women were biologically inferior)
  36. Stages in the sociological research process
    • 1) Choosing research topic
    • 2) Conducting a literature review
    • 3) Formulating a hypothesis
  37. Unit of analysis
    Focus of sociological research usually a person, organization, or geographical region
  38. Quota sample
    Non-random sample in which units in the sample are chosen according to one or more characteristics so that the sample resembles these characteristics of the population
  39. Observation Research (Advantages)
    may provide rich, detailed information about the people observed
  40. Observation Research (Disadvantages)
    do not involve random samples of the population, their results can't be generalized to the population
Card Set
Sociology Notes Edited