A&PII Test Chapter 19

  1. The cardiovascular system consists of?
    • blood
    • heart
    • blood vessels
  2. What system is intimately related to the cardiovascular system?
    Lymphatic system
  3. Hematology is the study of
  4. Blood is
    • opaque
    • sticky
    • viscous (5 x more that water)
    • liquid connective
    • 8% of total human body weight
    • slightly alkaline (7.35-7.45)
    • .9% sodium Chloride
  5. What is the average adult blood volume?
    5 liters (1 1/2 gallons)
  6. A function of blood is transport. What does it transport?
    • Oxygen from the lungs (heme, part of hemoglobin, does this) to the cells
    • Carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs (globin does this)
    • Nutrients from the digestive tract to the cells
    • Waste products from the cells to the lungs, kidneys, sweat glands, and liver
    • Hormones from the endocrine glands to the target cells
    • Enzymes to target cells
  7. What are the functions of blood?
    • Transportation
    • Regulation
    • Protection
  8. A function of blood is regulation. What does blood regulate?
    • Temperature (37C 98.6F)
    • pH through buffers
  9. One of the functions of blood is protection. What does it protect against?
    • Blood loss through clotting mechanisms
    • Foreign bodies (ex. microbes)
  10. What are the components of blood?
    Formed elements - 45%

    Plasma - 55%
  11. What are the formed elements of blood? What percentage of blood do they make up?
    • RBC
    • WBC
    • Platelets

  12. What is blood minus it's formed elements?
  13. What percentage of blood does plasma make up? What is plasma?

    Fluid part of blood with clotting elements (minus formed elements)
  14. What percentage of plasma is made up of clotting elements? What are they primarily?
    7% of the plasma are clotting elements. They are primarily proteins.
  15. Plasma minus the clotting elements is what?
  16. Through what process are blood cells produced?
  17. What are the 3 major types of blood cells (formed elements)?
    • Red blood cells (RBC)
    • White blood cells (WBC)
    • Platelets
  18. What is another name for a RBC?
  19. What is another name for a WBC?
  20. What is another name for platelets?
  21. Where are RBCs made?
    myeloid tissue (bone marrow)
  22. Where are WBC's made?
    myeloid tissue and lymphoid tissue (spleen & lymph nodes)
  23. Where are platelets made?
    myeloid tissue (bone marrow)
  24. Through what process are RBCs formed?
  25. What is the shape of RBCs? Why are they shaped this way?
    • biconcave disks
    • anucleated

    allows for more surface area for gas exchange than almost any other shape
  26. How big are RBCs?
    8 micrometers in diameter
  27. How much hemoglobin do RBCs contain?
    • 30% of cell weight
    • 14gm/dl
  28. Hemoglobin is a complex molecule. What does it contain?
    • a functional protein called globin
    • a non protein pigment called heme
  29. What is globin? What is it composed of? What does it carry?
    • Globin is the functional protein part of hemoglobin.
    • It is composed of polypeptide chains (2 alpha and 2 beta chains).
    • It carries carbon dioxide.
  30. What is heme? What does it contain? What does it carry?
    • Heme is the non-protein pigment part of hemoglobin.
    • contains iron
    • carries oxygen
  31. Hemoglobin combines with oxygen to form
  32. Hemoglobin combines with carbon dioxide to form
  33. Hemoglobin combines with carbon monoxide to form
  34. How long do RBCs live?
    120 days (4 months)
  35. How many RBCs are produced each second?
    2 million
  36. What is the stem cell called that gives rise to RBCs, WBCs, and thrombocytes?
  37. What is a RBC in the final stage of immature development before becoming a mature RBC called?
    reticulocyte (retic)
  38. Do retics have a nucleus? What do they have that mature RBCs don't?
    No, retics do not have a nucleus.

    Retics do still have organelles which mature RBCs do not have.
  39. How many retics are considered abnormal?
    more than 1.5%
  40. Is anemia just caused by low iron?
    No, anemia can result from decreased numbers of RBCs, decreased hemoglobin or cell size, or bizarre shapes.
  41. What test measures the percentage of RBCs in whole blood? What do you spin the blood in?
    hematocrit (Hct)

    blood is spun in a centrifuge
  42. What is the normal amount of RBCs for a male?
    For a female?
    Male 47%

    Female 42%
  43. Do WBC's have a nucleus?
    yes, WBC are nucleated
  44. What are the 2 principal types of WBCs?
    • granular leukocytes
    • agranular leukocytes
  45. Where do granular leukocytes develop? What are some characteristics of granular leukocytes?
    • develop in the bone marrow
    • have granules or stippling in cytoplasm
    • lobbed nuclei
    • about 10 micrometers in diameter
  46. What are the 3 types of granular leukocytes?
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
    • Neutrophils
  47. Eosinophils
    • Granular leukocyte
    • cytoplasmic granules stain orange
    • eosinophilia indicates an acute allergic reaction or internal parasites

    normally about 2-4%
  48. Basophils
    • granular leukocyte
    • granules stain dark purple
    • huge nuclei
    • basophilia indicates certain types of cancer and leukemias

    normally 0 -1 %
  49. Neutrophils
    • granular leukocytes
    • granules stain dark very light blue
    • known as polymorphs (many forms of nuclei)
    • neutrophilia indicates acute bacterial infection (ex septicemia)

    normally 60-70%
  50. What are some characteristics of agranular leukocytes?
    • develop in bone marrow and lymph tissue
    • do not have cytoplasmic granules
    • from 8-15 in diameter
    • no staining in cytoplasm
  51. Name 2 types of agranular leukocytes.
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
  52. Lymphocytes
    • agranular leukocyte
    • smallest WBC
    • large nucleus and little cytoplasm
    • lymphocytosis indicates acute viral infections

    normally 20-25%
  53. Monocytes
    • agranular leukocyte
    • Largest WBC
    • monocytosis indicates chronic infection

    normally 3-8%
  54. What are thrombocytes? What are the characteristics of a thrombocyte?
    • no nucleus
    • fragments of giant cells called megakaryocytes
    • round or oval purple disks
    • 2 micrometers in diameter
    • function by breaking down to form fibrin clots
    • normal count between 250-400 thousand/cubic mm (very important to surgeons)
    • average life 5-9 days
  55. Plasma is
    • Liquid portion of blood
    • 55% of whole blood
    • 91.5% water
    • 1.5% solutes
    • 7% proteins (when proteins are removed in the clotting process, what is left is serum)
  56. What are the functions associated with WBCs?
    • Phagocytosis - eats
    • Chemotaxis - chemical alarm
    • defensins - like antibiotics
    • antihistamines - reduce swelling
    • antibodies - like keys for inactivating antigens
    • diapedesis - movement through capillary walls
  57. What are wandering macrophages?
    WBCs that move in the extravascular space disposing of dead or foreign matter
  58. What is the normal count for WBCs?
    • 1 WBC per 1000 RBCs
    • 5-8 thousand/cubic millimeter

    • leukocytosis indicates infection
    • leukopenia is seen in wasting or near death conditions
  59. What blood test is done to identify the percentage of each type of WBC in a blood sample?
    Complete blood count (CBC) with differential.
  60. How long do WBCs live?
    Several hours to several days
  61. What is hypoxia?
    Oxygen deficiency at the cellular level
Card Set
A&PII Test Chapter 19
A&PII Chapter 19 Part A Test