music section 2

  1. music section 2
    rural African‐American oral tradition (UMRG:35,1,1)
  2. emotion most characteristic of the blues
    sadness (UMRG:35,1,1)
  3. blue notes
    flattened, bent, or shaded notes on ^3, ^5, and ^7 (UMRG:35,1,3)
  4. How can a pianist play blue notes that lie between piano keys?
    using “crushed notes” by playing two adjacent notes at once (UMRG:35,2,1)
  5. Why is Western notation unable to capture the nuances of the blues?
    Much of blues is improvisational. (UMRG:35,2,1)
  6. At which part of the form does a line of blues lyrics generally end?
    Midway through a four bar section (UMRG:35,2,0)
  7. ring shout
    a slavery‐era religious tradition involving improvisation, call and response, and movement (UMRG:36,1,1)
  8. Which two cultural contexts did the ring shout combine?
    African and American (UMRG:36,1,1)
  9. Why were slaves often prohibited from playing loud instruments?
    they might use them to communicate and escape (UMRG:36,1,2)
  10. work song
    a song sung by groups of African‐American laborers in plantation fields or railroad yards (UMRG:36,1,3)
  11. field holler
    a spontaneously created musical expression (UMRG:36,1,4)
  12. What circumstance determined the tempo of a work song?
    the tempo of the work being done (UMRG:36,1,3)
  13. What musical element allowed work songs to go on indefinitely?
    ongoing variation in form (UMRG:36,1,3)
  14. three possible arrangements of singers in a work song
    a leader calling out and the group responding, two groups alternating, or one group in unison (UMRG:36,1,3)
  15. What style best describes the beat of a field holler?
    rubato (UMRG:36,1,4)
  16. What kind of contour characterized the field holler?
    a wavelike, descending contour (UMRG:36,2,0)
  17. What would listeners of a field holler contribute when they joined in?
    spoken or sung encouragement at cadence points (UMRG:36,2,0)
  18. What circumstance determined the subject of a field holler?
    the context in which the singer found himself (UMRG:36,2,0)
  19. In which TWO entertainment forms were the blues first commercially successful?
    minstrel shows and vaudeville (UMRG:36,2,1)
  20. Which stereotypes formed the basis for the stock characters in minstrel shows?
    stereotypes of African Americans (UMRG:36,2,1)
  21. What social purpose was served by lampooning the manners and speech of blacks in minstrel shows?
    easing fears about race (UMRG:36,2,1)
  22. What makeup did white minstrel actors use to carry out their satire?
    blackface (UMRG:37,1,0)
  23. How did the casts of minstrel troupes change after the Civil War?
    They began to accept black members, who eventually dominated the casts. (UMRG:37,1,1)
  24. What employment did most former slaves take up after emancipation?
    sharecropping (UMRG:37,2,1)
  25. songsters
    traveling singers who performed for tips or to attract attention to a sales pitch (UMRG:37,2,1)
  26. What TWO types of musical performers first disseminated the blues?
    songsters and early jazz musicians (UMRG:37,2,1)
  27. southern region associated with the birth of the blues
    the Mississippi Delta (UMRG:38,1,2)
  28. three names for the first blues tradition that developed in the Mississippi Delta
    country blues, downhome blues, and folk blues (UMRG:38,1,3)
  29. What gender dominated country blues?
    men (UMRG:38,1,3)
  30. three names for the blues tradition that spread through vaudeville and minstrel shows
    classic blues, vaudeville blues, and urban blues (UMRG:38,2,0)
  31. two pitched instruments preferred by country blues singers
    harmonica and guitar (UMRG:38,1,3)
  32. What gender dominated classic blues?
    women (UMRG:38,2,0)
  33. Tin Pan Alley Blues
    music in which white performers borrowed characteristic elements from the blues tradition (UMRG:38,2,1)
  34. W. C. Handy
    the “Father of the Blues” who brought the blues to a wide audience (UMRG:38,2,2)
  35. instrument W. C. Handy played
    cornet (UMRG:39,1,1)
  36. managerial position W. C. Handy held in his minstrel troupe
    bandleader (UMRG:39,1,1)
  37. Where did W. C. Handy first encounter the blues?
    a train platform in the Mississippi Delta (UMRG:39,1,1)
  38. Before phonographs and radio were commercially viable, how did W. C. Handy publish his blues?
    as sheet music (UMRG:39,2,0)
  39. Which of W. C. Handy’s songs first achieved recording fame?
    St. Louis Blues (UMRG:39,2,1)
  40. What style, newly popular at the time, inspired the vocal phrasing in W. C. Handy’s “St. Louis Blues”?
    tango (UMRG:39,2,2)
  41. What THREE aspects of its arrangement make W. C. Handy’s “St. Louis Blues” less spontaneous than traditional blues?
    It was notated, intended for a large ensemble, and had a determinate structure. (UMRG:39,2,1)
  42. What harmonic device made W. C. Handy’s “St. Louis Blues” inaccessible to poorer blues musicians?
    modal mixture (UMRG:39,2,1)
  43. musician who codified the blues and prepared it for an audience beyond black folk culture
    W. C. Handy (UMRG:40,1,1)
  44. musical texture of the introduction of W. C. Handy’s “St. Louis Blues” as sung by Billie Holiday
    polyphony (UMRG:40,1,3)
  45. Which TWO instruments fill the gaps between Billie Holiday’s vocal lines in “St. Louis Blues”?
    trumpet and piano (UMRG:40,1,3)
  46. Which TWO instrument families make up the ensemble that answers Billie Holiday in the B section of “St. Louis Blues”?
    brass and woodwind (UMRG:40,1,3)
  47. Mamie Smith
    a black vaudeville singer who demonstrated the commercial appeal of black musicians with “Crazy Blues” (UMRG:41,1,1)
  48. race records
    recordings of specific ethnic styles of music, produced by independent record labels or race divisions of larger labels (UMRG:41,1,2)
  49. Bessie Smith
    the “Empress of the Blues”, one of the most famous blues singers of the 1920s (UMRG:41,2,2)
  50. What TWO achievements set Bessie Smith apart from other blues singers of her period?
    a meteoric rise to fame and a high entertainment value at live performances (UMRG:42,1,1)
  51. Which race comprised most of Bessie Smith’s audiences?
    African‐Americans (UMRG:42,2,1)
  52. Which famous bandleader and trumpet player collaborated with Bessie Smith on nine songs?
    Louis Armstrong (UMRG:42,2,2)
  53. two most archetypal country blues singers of the 1920s
    Charlie Patton and Son House (UMRG:42,2,4)
  54. What guitar technique was Charlie Patton famous for using?
    slide (UMRG:42,2,4)
  55. What TWO guitar techniques was Son House famous for using?
    bottleneck slide and tremolo (UMRG:42,2,4)
  56. What kind of tone characterized Charlie Patton’s voice?
    raspy or rugged (UMRG:42,2,4)
  57. What FOUR vocal techniques was Son House famous for using?
    humming, falsetto, moans, and shouts (UMRG:42,2,4)
  58. What THREE activities characterized Charlie Patton’s lifestyle?
    drinking, fighting, and womanizing (UMRG:42,2,4)
  59. Under which record label did Charlie Patton and Blind Lemon Jefferson record?
    Paramount (UMRG:42,2,5)
  60. What style of music influenced Blind Blake’s guitar playing?
    ragtime (UMRG:42,2,5)
  61. What guitar technique was Blind Blake famous for using?
    finger‐picking (UMRG:42,2,5)
  62. What THREE different directions did country blues take when the blues craze began to fade post‐1920s?
    maintaining old traditions, combining southern and northern musical styles, and blending blues with styles like jazz (UMRG:43,1,1)
  63. Which classic blues singer came closest to surviving the Great Depression?
    Bessie Smith (UMRG:43,1,2)
  64. Why did Columbia Records cancel Bessie Smith’s recording contract?
    falling record sales (UMRG:43,2,1)
  65. What change did Bessie Smith make to her repertoire to survive into the swing era?
    adding Tin Pan Alley material (UMRG:43,2,1)
  66. How did Bessie Smith change her appearance during the swing era?
    replaced her feathers and wigs with a more elegant look (UMRG:43,2,1)
  67. How did the role of the singer change during the Great Depression?
    Singers became attached to bands instead of bands accompanying singers. (UMRG:43,2,3)
  68. Why did many blues singers lose their recording contracts during the Great Depression?
    Record companies were not willing to take a risk on a recording that might not sell. (UMRG:43,2,2)
  69. What aspect of the downhome blues style appealed to audiences?
    a sense of connection with the rural tradition (UMRG:44,1,1)
  70. Robert Johnson
    a downhome blues musician from the Mississippi Delta who rose to popularity during the 1930s (UMRG:44,1,2)
  71. Which blues musician most influenced Robert Johnson?
    Son House (UMRG:44,1,2)
  72. What major change occurred in blues instrumentation in the 1930s?
    The piano became more popular than the guitar for accompanying singers. (UMRG:44,1,3)
  73. Why did the recording industry move north during the Great Depression?
    Record labels could no longer afford to travel south for talent scouting or recording. (UMRG:43,1,3)
  74. What kind of tone characterized Robert Johnson’s voice?
    taut, sometimes strained (UMRG:44,1,2)
  75. center of the recording industry during the Great Depression
    Chicago, Illinois (UMRG:44,2,1)
  76. small city that was the first northern center of the recording industry in the 1930s
    Grafton, Wisconsin (UMRG:44,2,0)
  77. Big Bill Broonzy
    a central figure of the Chicago Blues who helped create the urban blues style (UMRG:44,2,1)
  78. Muddy Waters
    “Father of Modern Chicago Blues” (UMRG:44,2,1)
  79. Which TWO new blues styles appeared in Chicago in the late 1920s?
    hokum or party blues and boogie‐woogie (UMRG:45,1,1)
  80. With which record label did Big Bill Broonzy have the most success?
    Bluebird, a subsidiary of Victor (UMRG:44,2,1)
  81. What movement brought Big Bill Broonzy to international stardom?
    the folk music revival of the 1950s and 1960s (UMRG:45,1,0)
  82. Which blues style featured unabashedly obscene lyrics?
    hokum or party blues (UMRG:45,1,1)
  83. three musicians who pioneered the hokum or party blues style
    Big Bill Broonzy, Thomas A. Dorsey and Tampa Red (UMRG:45,1,1)
  84. Which TWO elements did hokum or party blues take from vaudeville blues?
    syncopation and ragtime dance sections (UMRG:45,1,1)
  85. On what instrument was the boogie‐woogie style created?
    piano (UMRG:45,1,2)
  86. What change in social values corresponded to the interest in folk music in the 1930s?
    valuing the “common man” (UMRG:45,2,2)
  87. John Lomax
    one of the major collectors of folk music during the 1930s and the “discoverer” of Lead Belly (UMRG:46,1,1)
  88. Lead Belly’s original name
    Huddie Ledbetter (UMRG:46,1,2)
  89. What government agency helped fund John Lomax’s recordings of folk music?
    the Library of Congress (UMRG:46,1,1)
  90. What demographic was drawn to collecting folk music during the 1930s?
    white urban intellectuals (UMRG:45,2,2)
  91. Where did John Lomax originally discover and record Lead Belly?
    a prison in Louisiana (UMRG:46,1,2,)
  92. Why was Lead Belly released from prison?
    He received a pardon from the governor of Louisiana. (UMRG:46,1,2)
  93. What tone best characterizes Lead Belly’s voice?
    full‐throated with rough vibrato (UMRG:46,3,1)
  94. What feature made Lead Belly’s guitar unusual?
    12 strings (UMRG:46,3,1)
  95. For what institution did Lead Belly record his repertoire between 1935 and 1940?
    the Library of Congress archives (UMRG:46,1,2)
  96. organizes of the Carnegie Hall concert series “From Spirituals to Swing”
    John Hammond (UMRG:46,2,1)
  97. To what vehicle does the title of Lead Belly’s song “Midnight Special” refer?
    a train that passed by his prison at night (UMRG:46,3,1)
  98. How many songs did Lead Belly have in his repertoire?
    about 500 (UMRG:46,3,1)
  99. What rhythmic aspect of Lead Belly’s “Midnight Special” is unusual?
    the free treatment of meter (UMRG:46,3,2)
  100. What rhythmic change appears at the end of the verse in Lead Belly’s “Midnight Special”?
    a shortened measure (UMRG:46,3,2)
  101. three musical elements of Lead Belly’s guitar playing on “Midnight Special”
    melodic figures, chords, and a bass line (UMRG:46,3,2)
  102. How does the tempo of Lead Belly’s “Midnight Special” change throughout the song?
    speeds up toward the end (UMRG:46,3,2)
  103. How did African‐American audiences react to Lead Belly’s music?
    considered it outdated (UMRG:47,1,0)
  104. Why did African‐American audiences NOT identify with the folk music craze of the 1930s?
    It was too raw and rural to reflect mainstream African‐American experience. (UMRG:47,1,0)
  105. city in which jazz originated
    New Orleans (UMRG:47,2,1)
  106. What TWO types of composition does jazz combine?
    notated and improvisational (UMRG:47,2,1)
  107. Scott Joplin
    the most famous ragtime pianist (UMRG:48,1,2)
  108. What type of ensembles played at parades, political events and funerals in 19th century New Orleans?
    brass band (UMRG:48,1,1)
  109. What TWO abilities did Scott Joplin learn from his childhood music teacher?
    classical technique and the ability to read notated music (UMRG:48,1,2)
  110. three instruments played by Scott Joplin
    piano, violin, and cornet (UMRG:48,1,2)
  111. In what form did Joplin sell his compositions?
    as sheet music (UMRG:48,1,2)
  112. rhythmic device used in ragtime melodies
    syncopation (UMRG:48,2,0)
  113. musical contour of ragtime melodies
    disjunct (UMRG:48,2,0)
  114. What TWO instrument families performed at high‐society parties in 19th century New Orleans?
    stringed instruments and keyboards (UMRG:48,1,1)
  115. What rhythmic trait best describes ragtime bass lines?
    a steady beat (UMRG:48,2,0)
  116. How are the pitches of ragtime bass lines organized?
    a low octave alternating with a mid‐range chord (UMRG:48,2,0)
  117. “Jelly Roll” Morton
    a creole pianist who helped develop ragtime beyond Scott Joplin (UMRG:48,2,1)
  118. Irving Berlin
    a Tin Pan Alley songwriter who used ragtime elements (UMRG:48,2,1)
  119. In what establishments was ragtime played in turn‐of‐the‐century New Orleans?
    bars and brothels (UMRG:48,2,2)
  120. What THREE types of dance bands began incorporating ragtime syncopation at the turn of the century?
    white, black, and creole (UMRG:48,2,2)
  121. What THREE musical elements did dance music and marches share in late 19th century New Orleans?
    a steady beat, a regular meter, and phrases of regular length (UMRG:48,2,3)
  122. strain
    a set of two or four phrases that make up a larger unit in New Orleans dance music (UMRG:48,2,3)
  123. What THREE musical elements could be used for expression within a strain in New Orleans dance music?
    melodic contour, dynamics, and rhythm (UMRG:48,2,3)
  124. What THREE blues elements did black dance bands begin adding in late 19th century New Orleans?
    blue notes, slides, and improvisation over a fixed set of chords (UMRG:48,2,4)
  125. How did the length of a strain in black dance music change with the introduction of blues?
    Strains could be three phrases long instead of four. (UMRG:48,2,4)
  126. Original Dixieland Jazz Band
    the first band to record jazz (UMRG:49,1,1)
  127. What race were the members of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band?
    white (UMRG:49,1,1)
  128. city in which the Original Dixieland Jazz Band originated
    New Orleans (UMRG:49,1,1)
  129. In what TWO major cities did the Original Dixieland Jazz Band perform during the mid‐1910s?
    New York and Chicago (UMRG:49,1,1)
  130. What FIVE melody instruments were often used in Dixieland jazz bands?
    trumpet, cornet, saxophone, clarinet, and trombone (UMRG:49,1,1)
  131. What musical texture best describes Dixieland jazz?
    polyphony (UMRG:49,1,1)
  132. What TWO instruments sometimes supplemented or replaced the piano in Dixieland jazz?
    guitar and banjo (UMRG:49,1,1)
  133. Louis Armstrong
    a New Orleans trumpet player and jazz musician who pioneered the “hot” sound (UMRG:49,2,1)
  134. What musician mentored Louis Armstrong and eventually invited him to join his band?
    Joe “King” Oliver (UMRG:49,2,1)
  135. In what city was Joe “King” Oliver’s band performing when Louis Armstrong joined it?
    Chicago (UMRG:49,2,1)
  136. In whose orchestra did Louis Armstrong first play solo?
    Fletcher Henderson (UMRG:50,1,1)
  137. two rhythmic characteristics of the “hot” sound
    unevenly played eighth notes over a smoother, four‐beat pulse (UMRG:50,1,1)
  138. two harmonic elements characteristic the “hot” sound?
    blues inflections and a regular harmonic pattern over which soloists could improvise (UMRG:50,1,1)
  139. stride piano
    a piano style related to ragtime, but less rigidly syncopated (UMRG:50,1,2)
  140. two pioneers of stride piano
    Fats Waller and James P. Johnson (UMRG:50,1,2)
  141. Paul Whiteman
    the first white dance‐band leader to incorporate jazz elements into his music (UMRG:50,1,3)
  142. What TWO aspects of Louis Armstrong’s style changed when he returned to Chicago from New York?
    became rhythmically driven and soloist‐based (UMRG:50,1,2)
  143. George Gershwin
    a composer who incorporated jazz elements in his classical compositions to create “symphonic jazz” (UMRG:50,1,3)
  144. “Porgy and Bess”
    George Gershwin’s jazz opera (UMRG:50,1,3)
  145. Who arranged the first performance of “Rhapsody in Blue”?
    Paul Whiteman (UMRG:50,1,3)
  146. concert hall where “Rhapsody in Blue” first performed
    Carnegie Hall (UMRG:50,1,3)
  147. two Kansas City bandleaders who incorporated blues into the dance band repertoire
    Benny Moten and Count Basie (UMRG:50,1,4)
  148. Why was Gershwin’s first concert at Carnegie Hall significant for jazz music?
    It introduced jazz to the world of classical music. (UMRG:50,1,3)
  149. What legislations allowed jazz to move into the cultural mainstream in 1933?
    repeal of Prohibition (UMRG:50,2,1)
  150. With what kind of establishment was jazz associated during Prohibition?
    the speakeasy (UMRG:50,2,1)
  151. Why did Dixieland jazz lose its popularity during the Great Depression?
    Urban audiences found it outmoded and old‐fashioned. (UMRG:50,1,5)
  152. How many instruments would a big band include during the 1930s?
    10 to 15 (UMRG:50,2,2)
  153. Why was playing in a big band in the 1930s a good position for a musician?
    It offered a steady paycheck, but still allowed for artistry and innovation. (UMRG:50,2,3)
  154. sweet jazz
    smooth, elegant, written arrangements of popular songs ideal for social dances (UMRG:50,2,4)
  155. Which race primarily comprised sweet jazz’s audience?
    white (UMRG:50,2,4)
  156. Which race primarily played in bands performing sweet jazz?
    white (UMRG:50,2,4)
  157. swing bands
    dance bands that streamlined their rhythms and featured “hot” soloists (UMRG:50,2,5)
  158. How many strong beats per measure do ragtime and Dixieland usually have?
    2 (UMRG:50,2,6)
  159. What onomatopoeia is used to describe the rhythmic accompaniments of ragtime and Dixieland?
    “boom‐chuck boom‐chuck” (UMRG:50,2,6)
  160. What change in rhythmic emphasis distinguished swing from ragtime and Dixieland?
    only a slight distinction between strong and weak beats (UMRG:51,1,0)
  161. best‐known rhythmic trait of swing music
    Eighth note pairs were played unevenly. (UMRG:51,1,1)
  162. How did swing harmonies differ from those of New Orleans jazz?
    chords changed more frequently (UMRG:51,1,1)
  163. What rhythmic effect is achieved by the uneven eighth notes in swing music?
    forward propulsion (UMRG:51,2,0)
  164. What crucial event brought swing music to prominence?
    a live broadcast of Benny Goodman’s orchestra (UMRG:51,2,1)
  165. five aspects of a note used to create a swing effect
    rhythm, attack, vibrato, intonation, and timbre (UMRG:51,2,0)
  166. Which note of an eighth‐note pair is given a longer duration in swing?
    the first (UMRG:51,1,1)
  167. What 1930s radio series showcased Benny Goodman’s orchestra?
    “Let’s Dance” (UMRG:52,1,1)
  168. What TWO instruments did Benny Goodman play?
    clarinet and saxophone (UMRG:52,1,1)
  169. composer/arranger hired by Benny Goodman in 1934
    Fletcher Henderson (UMRG:52,1,1)
  170. Benny Goodman
    a bandleader who introduced swing music to the white mainstream (UMRG:52,1,1)
  171. What style did Fletcher Henderson help add to Benny Goodman’s band?
    hot swing (UMRG:52,1,1)
  172. What TWO personal traits of Benny Goodman helped make him popular with mainstream white audiences?
    his clean‐cut appearance and his ease with the mainstream media (UMRG:52,1,2)
  173. repeated harmonic progression in a jazz arrangement
    chorus (UMRG:52,1,4)
  174. chord progression of a jazz song
    changes (UMRG:52,1,5)
  175. standard form usually used in choruses
    32‐bar form (UMRG:52,1,5)
  176. What pattern best describes the form of a standard chorus in jazz?
    AABA (UMRG:52,1,5)
  177. number of phrases in a standard jazz chorus
    4 (UMRG:52,1,5)
  178. jazz age
    the dominance of vaudeville singers and New Orleans jazz in the 1920s (UMRG:52,1,3)
  179. swing era
    the dominance of swing and big bands in the 1930s (UMRG:52,1,3)
  180. From what musical form is the system of repeated choruses that appear in swing music derived?
    the strain form of the march (UMRG:52,1,4)
  181. From where were the songs on which swing melodies were based often derived?
    Broadway (UMRG:52,1,4)
  182. What musical form would a swing song use if it did not use a 32‐bar form?
    twelve‐bar blues (UMRG:52,2,0)
  183. three aspects of a swing song that would change alongside the repetition of the chord progression
    melodic ideas, rhythmic ideas, and instrumentation (UMRG:52,2,1)
  184. two elements of a swing song that remained constant throughout a performance
    the tempo and the basic harmonic outline (UMRG:52,2,1)
  185. Why did the harmonic outline of a swing song have to remain the same throughout a performance?
    so that the original melody could still be sung over it (UMRG:52,2,1)
  186. four aspects of a swing song where innovation was possible
    orchestration, melody, rhythm, and performance style (UMRG:52,2,1)
  187. How were instrumentation and orchestral texture of a swing song determined?
    written out ahead of time by the arranger (UMRG:52,2,2)
  188. instrument replacing the banjo in swing bands
    guitar (UMRG:52,2,2)
  189. instrument replacing the tuba in swing bands
    double bass (UMRG:52,2,2)
  190. How many instruments were usually used in a 1930s dance band?
    13 (UMRG:52,2,2)
  191. What TWO reed instruments were interchangeable in swing bands?
    clarinet and saxophone (UMRG:52,2,2)
  192. four instruments comprising the rhythm section of a swing band
    piano, drum set, double bass, and guitar (UMRG:52,2,2)
  193. riffs
    short repeated phrases that could accompany a solo or stand alone as melodic material (UMRG:52,2,4)
  194. What TWO composers/arrangers contributed agility and a big sound to swing music?
    Fletcher Henderson and Don Redman (UMRG:52,2,3)
  195. five types of saxophone available to swing bands
    soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, and bass (UMRG:53,1,4)
  196. three types of saxophone most popular in swing bands
    alto, tenor, and baritone (UMRG:53,1,4)
  197. type of clarinet most popular in jazz
    B‐flat (UMRG:53,1,4)
  198. What pitch did a swing bassist generally play?
    the lowest pitch of the chord being played (UMRG:53,1,1)
  199. walking bass
    a bass line consisting of a low‐pitched melodic line that still functions harmonically (UMRG:53,1,1)
  200. What bassist from Duke Ellington’s band was known for walking bass lines?
    Jimmy Blanton (UMRG:53,1,1)
  201. What harmonic role did piano and guitar play in a swing band?
    reinforced the harmonic progression (UMRG:53,1,2)
  202. Which instrument in the rhythm section would take solos in a 1930s band?
    piano (UMRG:53,1,2)
  203. How many pitches would the bass play per beat in a swing band?
    1 (UMRG:53,1,1)
  204. three instrument sections comprising the melody instruments in a swing band
    trumpets and cornets, trombones and valve trombones, and reeds (UMRG:53,1,3)
  205. a melody instrument section playing in the same rhythm with each member taking a different note of the chord
    playing as a choir (UMRG:53,1,3)
  206. What THREE features of the saxophone create its characteristic husky or buzzing timbre?
    a reed mouthpiece, a metal body, and a conical bore (UMRG:53,1,4)
  207. Why does the saxophone have different overtones from the clarinet?
    it has a conical bore (UMRG:53,1,4)
  208. Who would decide which choruses would consist of solos and their performers in a swing band?
    the bandleader (UMRG:53,1,5)
  209. What FOUR instruments took most of the solos in a swing band?
    alto saxophone, tenor saxophone, trumpet, and piano (UMRG:53,2,0)
  210. shout chorus
    a climactic chorus played by the entire band at the end of a swing song (UMRG:53,2,1)
  211. What older tradition gave the shout chorus its name?
    ring shout (UMRG:53,2,1)
  212. Duke Ellington
    an influential mid‐20th century pianist, composer, arranger, and bandleader (UMRG:53,2,2)
  213. Duke Ellington’s city of birth
    Washington, D. C. (UMRG:53,2,2)
  214. How did Duke Ellington learn most of his skills in piano and harmony?
    self‐taught (UMRG:53,2,3)
  215. To what African‐American cultural center did Duke Ellington move in 1923?
    Harlem (UMRG:53,2,4)
  216. What band did Duke Ellington first join when he arrived in Harlem?
    the Washingtonians (UMRG:53,2,4)
  217. Irving Mills
    Duke Ellington’s first manager (UMRG:54,1,0)
  218. At which famous club did Irving Mills secure a regular spot for Duke Ellington?
    the Cotton Club (UMRG:54,1,0)
  219. Where was the Cotton Club located?
    Harlem (UMRG:54,1,0)
  220. How many compositions did Duke Ellington produce in his career?
    over 1,000 (UMRG:54,1,1)
  221. How did Duke Ellington signal upcoming musical changes to his band?
    sound cues from the piano (UMRG:54,1,1)
  222. Why was Duke Ellington able to remain successful for an unsually long time?
    his willingness to explore new musical directions (UMRG:54,2,0)
  223. What THREE places did Duke Ellington tour after leaving the Cotton Club in 1931?
    the United States, Canada, and Europe (UMRG:54,1,1)
  224. the Ellington effect
    the signature sound of Duke Ellington’s band (UMRG:54,2,1)
  225. What THREE elements determined the signature sound of a band?
    the techniques of the arranger and the musical backgrounds and performance styles of the musicians (UMRG:54,2,1)
  226. James “Bubber” Miley
    a hot jazz trumpet player who introduced swing to Duke Ellington’s band (UMRG:54,2,2)
  227. Why was Duke Ellington’s band’s music classified as jazz rather than dance?
    incorporated elements of swing music (UMRG:54,2,2)
  228. What THREE techniques did Duke Ellington use to create his signature sound?
    utilizing his musicians’ individual skills, incorporating elements from hot and sweet jazz, and using larger forms (UMRG:54,2,2)
  229. What musical style best describes Duke Ellington’s original band in the 1920s?
    dance music (UMRG:54,2,2)
  230. What change inspired Duke Ellington to alter the sound of his band?
    the introduction of new members with different playing styles (UMRG:54,2,2)
  231. Why did swing songs have to be under three minutes long in the 1930s?
    A 78‐rpm record could only hold three minutes. (UMRG:55,1,0)
  232. What THREE larger forms did Duke Ellington use to circumvent the three‐minute time limit on songs?
    suites, fantasies, and theater pieces (UMRG:55,1,0)
  233. How did Duke Ellington differentiate his arrangements from the “choir” format?
    assigned the notes of a chord to instruments from different sections (UMRG:55,1,1)
  234. In what FOUR musical areas did Duke Ellington make innovations in the standard dance‐band form?
    timbres, textures, harmonies, and instrumental integration (UMRG:55,1,1)
  235. jungle style
    the faux‐primitive musical style developed by Duke Ellington at the Cotton Club (UMRG:55,1,2)
  236. What aspect of his audience encouraged Duke Ellington to develop the jungle style?
    White audiences expected to find “primitive” culture in African‐American sections of town. (UMRG:55,2,0)
  237. train theme
    Duke Ellington music that was inspired by trains (UMRG:55,2,1)
  238. What TWO harmonic elements characterize Duke Ellington’s jungle style?
    minor modes and thick chords (UMRG:55,2,0)
  239. What THREE instrumental effects did Duke Ellington feature in his jungle style composition?
    muted brass, “growl” effects, and notes in the instruments’ extreme ranges (UMRG:55,2,0)
  240. What TWO musical effects did Duke Ellington feature in his train theme compositions?
    whistle imitations and chugging rhythms (UMRG:55,2,1)
  241. What musical tradition influenced Duke Ellington’s “mood pieces”?
    blues (UMRG:55,2,2)
  242. What song provided the chord changes for Duke Ellington’s “Cottontail”?
    “I Got Rhythm” (UMRG:55,2,2)
  243. the two composers of “I Got Rhythm”
    George and Ira Gershwin (UMRG:55,2,2)
  244. musical style of Duke Ellington’s “Cottontail”
    jazz‐influenced dance music (UMRG:55,2,2)
  245. In which Broadway show was the song “I Got Rhythm” originally featured?
    “Girl Crazy” (UMRG:55,3,1)
  246. the two composers of the Broadway show “Girl Crazy”
    George and Ira Gershwin (UMRG:55,3,1)
  247. Which singer first performed the song “I Got Rhythm”?
    Ethel Merman (UMRG:55,3,1)
  248. In what mode does the song “I Got Rhythm” begin?
    minor (UMRG:55,3,1)
  249. What kind of chord ends the first verse of the song “I Got Rhythm”?
    dominant seventh (UMRG:55,3,1)
  250. What standard form best describes the song “I Got Rhythm”?
    32‐bar form (UMRG:55,3,2)
  251. a short extension at the end of a song form
    tag (UMRG:55,3,2)
  252. What purpose does the tag serve at the end of “I Got Rhythm”?
    accommodating a repeated line of lyrics (UMRG:55,3,2)
  253. What change is made to the end of the song form when “I Got Rhythm” is performed as a jazz song?
    omission of the two measures preceding the tag (UMRG:55,3,2)
  254. What pattern describes the form of “I Got Rhythm”?
    AABA (UMRG:55,3,2)
  255. bridge (in jazz music)
    the third phrase of a jazz song that contrasts with the rest of the song (UMRG:55,3,2)
  256. contrafact
    a jazz song that uses the chord progression from another song (UMRG:56,2,1)
  257. hit songs
    songs intended to sell sheet music and recordings after the initial performances (UMRG:56,2,1)
  258. the chord progression of “I Got Rhythm”
    rhythm changes (UMRG:56,2,1)
  259. classical music’s term for the chorus repetition in jazz
    variation form (UMRG:56,2,2)
  260. What TWO elements would change as musicians repeated the chorus of a jazz song?
    texture and instrumentation (UMRG:56,2,2)
  261. key of the melody in the instrumental introduction of “I Got Rhythm”
    Bb (UMRG:56,2,3)
  262. key in which Ethel Merman sings the melody of “I Got Rhythm”
    F (UMRG:56,2,3)
  263. key of the song “Cotton Tail”
    Bb (UMRG:56,2,3)
  264. type of progression found in the second‐to‐last measure of “I Got Rhythm”
    authentic cadence (UMRG:56,1,1)
  265. What section did jazz musicians omit when playing popular songs as dance pieces?
    the verse (UMRG:56,1,2)
  266. Why is a second‐inversion I chord considered a dominant harmony?
    ^5 is the lowest and weightiest note in the chord. (UMRG:56,1,1)
  267. What harmonic change is often made on the lyric “I got my man” in the song “I Got Rhythm”?
    a stepwise bass line between I and V (UMRG:56,1,1)
  268. What pitch does Ethel Merman hit in the second chorus of “I Got Rhythm”?
    a high C (UMRG:55,3,1)
  269. What TWO devices could jazz musicians use to lengthen a song?
    adding choruses, or having extra musicians take solos during chorus repetitions (UMRG:57,1,2)
  270. instrument that takes a solo over the first and second choruses of “Cotton Tail”
    tenor saxophone (UMRG:58,1,1)
  271. What TWO types of instrument participate in call and response in the B section of “Cotton Tail”?
    saxophone and trumpet (UMRG:58,1,1)
  272. What TWO types of instrument play in parallel over the third chorus of “Cotton Tail”?
    trumpet and trombone (UMRG:58,1,1)
  273. What technique does the saxophone section use in the fourth chorus of “Cotton Tail”?
    playing in choir (UMRG:58,1,1)
  274. effect of harmonic, melodic, and instrumental changes in “Cotton Tail”
    highlights the song’s clear structure (UMRG:58,1,2)
  275. Which section of the band clearly articulates the beat, tempo, and meter in “Cotton Tail”?
    the rhythm section (UMRG:58,1,3)
  276. In what part of the form does the piano solo occur in “Cotton Tail”?
    the last A of the 3rd chorus (UMRG:58,1,1)
  277. At which part of the measure do most of the phrases in “Cotton Tail” end?
    just before a downbeat (UMRG:58,1,3)
  278. Ben Webster
    a tenor saxophonist heavily used in Duke Ellington’s “Cottontail” (UMRG:59,1,1)
  279. What THREE techniques characterize Ben Webster’s saxophone playing?
    intricate articulation, chromatic pitches, and vibrato (UMRG:59,1,1)
  280. growl effect
    a raspy or strident timbre in the upper octave of a saxophone’s range (UMRG:59,1,2)
  281. Why is the bass line of the second chorus of “Cotton Tail” unusual?
    the tonic for eight measures straight (UMRG:59,1,3)
  282. Harry Carney
    a baritone saxophone player in Duke Ellington’s band (UMRG:59,1,4)
  283. Joseph “Tricky Sam” Nanton
    a trombone player in Duke Ellington’s band who pioneered the use of the plunger mute and growl techniques (UMRG:59,2,5)
  284. Cootie Williams
    a trumpet player in Duke Ellington’s band who applied the plunger mute and growl techniques to the trumpet (UMRG:59,2,5)
  285. What TWO roles did Cootie Williams fill in Duke Ellington’s band?
    trumpet player and vocalist (UMRG:59,3,0)
  286. Lester Young
    a famous saxophone player who was part of Count Basie’s band in the 1930s (UMRG:60,1,1)
  287. Coleman Hawkins
    a famous saxophone player who was part of Fletcher Henderson’s band in the 1930s (UMRG:60,1,1)
  288. Art Tatum
    the most famous solo jazz pianist of the 1930s (UMRG:60,1,1)
  289. combo jazz
    jazz played by small groups (UMRG:60,2,1)
  290. advantage of small groups or combos in performing
    could fit into small clubs and speakeasies (UMRG:60,2,1)
  291. advantage of small groups or combos in recording
    The musicians were not under contract with the record companies. (UMRG:60,2,2)
  292. Why did individual musicians have more freedom when playing in small groups?
    less need for detailed arrangements (UMRG:61,1,1)
  293. head arrangement
    a basic arrangement of a song, used primarily by small groups (UMRG:61,1,1)
  294. What TWO aspects of soloing were different in small groups than in big bands?
    Improvisation was more common, and a soloist could easily continue for more choruses. (UMRG:61,1,1)
  295. three goals characterizing jazz jam sessions
    to outdo one another in virtuosity, develop new effects, and experiment with long solos (UMRG:61,1,1)
  296. How did the racial composition of big bands change towards the end of the 1930s?
    Bands started to become desegregated. (UMRG:61,1,3)
  297. Which race comprised most of popular black musicians’ audience during the 1930s?
    white (UMRG:61,1,2)
  298. Of what race was Duke Ellington’s manager, Irving Mills?
    white (UMRG:61,1,2)
  299. What TWO attributes of jazz made it appealing to white audiences?
    catchy, danceable rhythms and compositions based on popular songs (UMRG:61,1,4)
  300. With what political ideology did white intellectual jazz listeners identify in the 1930s?
    leftist ideology (UMRG:61,2,0)
  301. How did 1930s European totalitarian regimes view jazz?
    they treated it as a corrupting influence (UMRG:61,2,0)
  302. two major music magazines featuring jazz criticism in the 1930s
    Downbeat and Metronome (UMRG:61,2,1)
  303. two mainstream white magazines featuring jazz criticism in the 1920s
    The New Republic and The Literary Digest (UMRG:61,2,1)
  304. two major political magazines featuring jazz criticism in the 1930s
    New Masses and The Nation (UMRG:61,2,1)
  305. Which TWO appliances was jazz usually heard on in middle‐class white homes in the 1930s?
    the victrola and the radio (UMRG:62,1,2)
  306. How did the public attitude towards jazz change over the course of the 1930s?
    jazz became “respectable” (UMRG:62,1,2)
  307. In what capacity were African‐Americans forbidden from the Cotton Club?
    as an audience member (UMRG:61,2,2)
  308. What famous author became an admirer of Duke Ellington after seeing his band in Kansas City?
    Ralph Ellison (UMRG:62,1,3)
  309. In what TWO ways were African‐Americans discriminated against in jazz?
    denied entry to conservatories and paid less than whites (UMRG:62,1,5)
  310. bebop
    the style of jazz that succeeded big band jazz (UMRG:62,1,5)
  311. Why did young black musicians develop the bebop style?
    the sense that white musicians had stolen black music and were profiting from it (UMRG:62,1,5)
  312. How many lines make up each stanza in the poetic form of blues?
    3 (UMRG:35,1,2)
  313. What type of music was most influenced by blues?
    jazz (UMRG:35,1,1)
  314. Which TWO lines were essentially identical in a standard blues stanza?
    the first and second (UMRG:35,1,2)
  315. fill (in blues)
    the response in a blues call and response pattern (UMRG:35,2,0)
  316. What rhythmic trait formed the basis of the blues?
    an unfailingly steady beat (UMRG:35,1,3)
  317. What TWO elements were central to playing blues?
    freedom and spontaneity (UMRG:35,2,1)
  318. alteration commonly made to the blues form
    lengthening to 8 or 16 bars (UMRG:35,2,0)
  319. In which part of the section would a blues lyric end?
    roughly halfway (UMRG:35,2,0)
  320. What purpose did ending a lyric before the end of the phrase serve in blues?
    allowing space for instrumental “commentary” or fills (UMRG:35,2,0)
  321. What shortcoming led to the current lack of information on the origins of the blues?
    lack of documentation (UMRG:36,1,1)
  322. What TWO traditions did slaves combine in the ring shout?
    African and American/Christian (UMRG:36,1,1)
  323. stringed instrument used by slaves for secular music
    the banjo (UMRG:36,1,2)
  324. four types of performance included in minstrel shows
    comedic skits, social satire, musical numbers, and dancing (UMRG:36,2,1)
  325. Why did a large and close‐knit African American population develop in the Mississippi Delta in the 19th century?
    the dependence on slave or sharecropping labor for agriculture (UMRG:38,1,2)
  326. state of W. C. Handy’s birth
    Alabama (UMRG:39,1,1)
  327. slide guitar
    a style of guitar playing that uses a glass bottleneck on the fretboard (UMRG:38,1,3)
  328. What type of instrument originally inspired the use of slide guitar?
    African stringed instruments (UMRG:38,1,3)
  329. Perry Bradford
    the composer of “Crazy Blues” (UMRG:41,1,1)
  330. James P. Johnson
    a famous pianist who recorded with Bessie Smith (UMRG:42,2,1)
  331. juke joint
    small local bars where country blues was performed (UMRG:37,1,3)
  332. favored method of disseminating music around 1920
    records (UMRG:39,2,1)
  333. How did Mamie Smith’s recording of “Crazy Blues” affect the blues industry?
    started a blues craze dominated by female vocalists (UMRG:41,1,1)
  334. St. Louis Blues (film)
    a 17 minute film in which Bessie Smith starred (UMRG:43,1,2)
  335. Who recommended Bessie Smith for her role in the film “St. Louis Blues”?
    W. C. Handy (UMRG:43,1,2)
  336. What event ended Bessie Smith’s life?
    a car accident (UMRG:43,2,1)
  337. Which musician did Bessie Smith replace at a Harlem club in 1936?
    Billie Holiday (UMRG:43,2,1)
  338. What type of instrumentation characterized downhome blues?
    male soloists and a maximum of three instruments (UMRG:44,1,1)
  339. What genre of music did Thomas A. Dorsey pioneer?
    gospel music (UMRG:45,1,1)
  340. three instruments best suited to the boogie‐woogie style
    piano, guitar, and harmonica (UMRG:45,1,2)
  341. What project began John Lomax’s career as a folk music collector?
    collecting cowboy songs (UMRG:46,1,1)
  342. What post did John Lomax occupy at the Library of Congress?
    Curator of the Archive of American Folksong (UMRG:46,1,1)
  343. What demographic primarily attended Lead Belly’s concerts?
    urban whites (UMRG:46,1,2)
  344. Why did Robert Johnson NOT perform in the “From Spirituals to Swing” concerts?
    He died shortly before the concerts. (UMRG:46,1,1)
  345. Of what musical tradition is “Midnight Special” an example?
    the Texan black song tradition (UMRG:46,3,1)
  346. rhythmic change at the end of the refrain in Lead Belly’s “Midnight Special”
    a lengthened measure (UMRG:46,3,2)
  347. What aspect of Lead Belly’s music made it appealing to white audiences?
    its pure folk quality (UMRG:47,1,0)
  348. two European musical forms performed in end 19th century New Orleans
    opera and symphonies (UMRG:47,2,3)
  349. Creoles of Color
    Louisiana descendants of French colonial slave owners and slaves (UMRG:47,2,2)
  350. Sidney Bechet
    a Creole musician who incorporated blues elements into his music (UMRG:47,2,3)
  351. three cities comprising the tour circuit of mid 19th century classical musicians
    New Orleans, New York City and Havana (UMRG:47,2,3)
  352. Why did Creole music remain largely separate from other black music until the late 19th century?
    ethnic and cultural differences (UMRG:47,2,3)
  353. In what way was Scott Joplin different from most parlor music composers?
    He expected the buyer of his sheet music to perform his songs as he wrote them. (UMRG:48,2,0)
  354. What aspect of the blues introduced sets of three phrases to dance music?
    the poetic form (UMRG:48,2,4)
  355. What TWO characteristics differentiated New Orleans from other important port cities?
    its proximity to the Caribbean and its racial diversity (UMRG:48,2,2)
  356. What event greatly increased the popularity of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band nationwide?
    recording with the Victor label in 1917 (UMRG:49,1,1)
  357. What impression did Dixieland jazz convey to listeners?
    freedom and spontaneity (UMRG:49,2,0)
  358. What TWO abilities made Louis Armstrong a great trumpet player from his youth?
    agile technique and powerful sound (UMRG:49,2,1)
  359. In whose band did Louis Armstrong make his first recording?
    Joe “King” Oliver (UMRG:49,2,1)
  360. Who was the target demographic for race records?
    African‐American consumers (UMRG:50,1,0)
  361. Why was Paul Whitehead’s adoption of jazz more influential than Fletcher Henderson’s?
    He had access to a larger audience. (UMRG:50,1,3)
  362. Which TWO musical traditions did George Gershwin draw from in his songwriting career?
    jazz and blues (UMRG:50,1,3)
  363. What TWO changes turned New Orleans dance bands into swing bands?
    streamlined rhythm and the addition of “hot” soloists (UMRG:50,2,5)
  364. What TWO notations are used to indicate a pair of eighth notes in swing?
    a dotted eighth note with a sixteenth note, or an uneven triplet figure (UMRG:51,1,1)
  365. How many swing bands operated year‐round and were nationally known in the 1920s?
    about 50 (UMRG:52,1,3)
  366. Why is it difficult to pinpoint the beginning of the swing era?
    Most dance bands gradually incorporated jazz elements over several years. (UMRG:51,2,1)
  367. arranger who standardized the sound of big band swing
    Fletcher Henderson (UMRG:52,1,2)
  368. Why were saxophones and clarinets interchangeable in early big bands?
    Most reed players could play both instruments. (UMRG:52,2,3)
  369. role of the guitar in big band jazz
    filling out the texture (UMRG:53,1,2)
  370. What TWO attributes of the piano made it the only rhythm section instrument to take solos in big band jazz?
    It could play a melody, and its sound could be heard over the rest of the band. (UMRG:53,1,2)
  371. Where is Harlem located?
    in New York City, north of Central Park (UMRG:53,2,4)
  372. From what instrument did Duke Ellington lead his band?
    the piano (UMRG:54,1,1)
Card Set
music section 2
music section 2