BIOL-2420 Exam 1

  1. Who is the "Father of Microbiology and Protozoology"?
  2. Who was Antoni van Leewenhoek? List his accomplishments.
    (1632-1723) A Dutch tailor, merchant, and lens grinder. He began making and using simple microscopes. He often made new microscopes for each specimen. He examined water and visualized tiny animals, fungi, algae, and single-celled protozoa, animalcules and bacteria.
  3. What were the organisms discovered by Leeuwnoek called at end of 19th century?
  4. Who developed the taxonomic system?
  5. Who was Carolus Linnaeus? List his accomplishments.
    • (1707-1778) A Swedish botanist who developed a taxonomic
    • system—that is, a system for naming plants and animals and grouping similar
    • organisms together.

    They included these six basic categories: fungi, protozoa, algae, bacteria, archea, and small animals. The only type of microbes not described were viruses, which are too small to be seen without an electron microscope.
  6. Who was Francesco Redi? List his accomplishments.
    (1626-1697) An Italian physician who opposed spontaneous generation theory. He demonstrated by a series of experiments that when decaying meat was kept isolated from flies, maggots never developed, whereas meat exposed to flies was soon infected. He showed maggots grew on meat which was sealed in jars, they only appeared on the meat in open jars. Problem: opponents claimed that air was necessary for life, some still believed that simple organisms coud arise spontaneously. So he experimented again using a fine net instead. Maggots appeared only when flys could lay eggs on meat.

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    • As a result. scientists began to doubt Aristotle's theory and adopt the view that animals only come from other animals.
  7. Who was Louis Pasteur? List his accomplishments.

    • 1857 Fermentation
    • 1861 Disproved spontaneous generation
    • 1864 Pasteruization
    • He demonstrates that microbes are present in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions, but air itself does not create microbes. He heated broth in open flasks with s-shaped necks. Lead to the development of aseptic techniques (minimizes contamination of sample). Also, showed the connection between spoilage of food and microbes.
    • Fermentation--yeast convert sugars to alcohol in absence of air.
    • Pasteurization--heating just enough to kill most bacetia that cause spoilage in beer, wine, and milk.
  8. Who was Joseph Lister? List his accomplishments.
    (1827-1912) An English physician who modified and advanced the idea of antisepsis in health care settings. As a surgeon, Lister was aware of the dreadful consequences that resulted from the infection of wounds. Therefore, he began spraying wounds, surgical incisions, and dressings with carbolic acid (phenol), a chemical that had previously proven effective in reducing odor and decay in sewage. He became the founder of antiseptic surgery, and opened new fields of research into antisepsis and disinfection.
  9. Who was Joseph Koch? List his accomplishments.
    A country doctor in Germany
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BIOL-2420 Exam 1
Exam #1 Review - Chapters 1, 4, 11, 12, 13