1. Perception
    The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information in order to make sense of our world.
  2. Selective Attention
    Process of filtering information received by our senses and placing it in a given perceptual context.
  3. Mental Models
    Broad world-views or "theories-in-use"

    Helps us to quickly make sense of situations
  4. Social Identity Theory
    Identity and self-perception are created by membership in social groups + categories.

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  5. Stereotyping
    The process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social group or category. (e.g., older people, blonds, etc.)
  6. Prejudice
    Pre-judging others because of their traits or membership in given social groups.

    Is usually negative but can be positive - people may think I'm smart because of having a Ph.D.
  7. Attribution Theory
    How we perceive the reasons for behaviors.

    Internal Attribution - Perception that person's behavior is due to motivation/ability rather than situation or fate.

    External Attribution - Perception that behavior is due to situation or fate rather than the person.
  8. Attribution Error: Self-serving Bias
    Attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors.
  9. Self-fulfilling Prophesy
    An incorrect or new definition of the situation (or expectation) that influences behavior consistent with the incorrect or new definition, influencing the definition of the situation to ultimately come true.
  10. Self-efficacy
    The perception that what ultimately happens to us is due to our own actions/internal forces versus external forces, fate, luck, etc, i.e., confidence in our abilities to make it happen.
  11. Perceptual Errors
    Primacy - first impressions

    Recency - most recent information dominates perceptions

    Halo - one trait forms a general impression

    Projection - believe other people have the same attitude + beliefs as you
  12. Empathy
    Sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts, and situation of others.
  13. Tacit Knowledge
    knowledge gained/transmitted via observation + experience
  14. Behavior Modification
    We "operate" on the environment. - alter behavior to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences.

    Learning is viewed as completely dependent or the environment

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  15. Positive Reinforcement
    Occurs when the introduction of a consequence increases or maintains the frequency or future probability of a behavior.
  16. Punishment
    When a consequence or threat of a consequence decreases frequency of behavior occurring.

    Punishment is not as effective as positive reinforcement, since the unwanted behavior can re-appear when the punisher is not present.
  17. Social Learning Theory
    Behavioral modeling - Observing and modeling behavior of others

    Learning behavioral consequences - Observing consequences that others experience

    Self-reinforcement - Reinforcing our own behavior with positive actions within our control + Observing and modeling behavior of others
  18. Experiential learning
    Learning through reflecting upon experience and applying lessons learned to life and job.
Card Set
MGMT340 - CH.3