cell vocab.txt

  1. Homeostasis
    the maintainence of a stable internal environment
  2. Set point
    a point in which if breached activates homeostasis
  3. Negative feedback
    reverses a change that takes a system back toward a set point
  4. Positive feedback
    reinforces a change carrying it further away from its set point
  5. Somatic cell
    all of the other cells in the human body
  6. Sex cell
    sperm (males) or oocytes (females); cells that are responsible for human reproduction
  7. Intracellular
    fluid that is located inside the cell
  8. Extracellular
    fluid that surrounds the cell
  9. Interstitial
    the fluid in most cells that are extracellular
  10. Plasma membrane
    the outer boundary of a cell; separates the cell from the external environment
  11. Phospholipid bilayer
    another name for plasma membrane; consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules
  12. Integral membrane protein
    part of the membrane that cannot be removed
  13. Peripheral membrane protein
    bound to the surface of the membrane and is easily removed
  14. Membrane enzymes
    catalyzes reactions inside or outside of the cell
  15. Receptor proteins
    proteins in the membrane that are sensitive to ligands (An ion, a molecule, or a molecular group that binds to another chemical entity to form a larger complex)
  16. Linker proteins
    (aka anchoring proteins) attaches the membrane to other structures to stablize the cell
  17. Recongition Proteins
    distinguishes unique cells from anyone else
  18. Transport proteins
    binds solutes and transports them across the plasma membrane
  19. Ion channel proteins
    allows specific ions to move through a water-filled pore
  20. Glycocalyx
    carbohydrates that extend away from all surfaces
  21. Cytoskeleton
    the cell's skeleton; responsible for maintaining the structural integrity of the cell
  22. Microfiliaments
    smallest unit of the cytoskeleton; help in cell movement and support
  23. Intermediate filaments
    strong units that resist mechanical stress; stablize organelles in cell
  24. Microtubules
    long and hollow; provide strength and rigidity; assist in chromosome movement
  25. Thick filaments
    appear only in muscle cells; assist with musclular contractions
  26. Cilia
    extensions of the plasma membrane; moves fluids across the cell surface
  27. Microvilli
    projections that increase cell surface area in the extracellular environment
  28. Centriole
    cylindrical structures; organize the cytoskeleton and direct chromosome movement
  29. Ribosome
    organelle responsible for protein synthesis
  30. Free ribosome
    ribosomes that are freely scattered across a cell
  31. Fixed ribosome
    ribosomes that are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
  32. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    responsible for synthesizing new proteins, chemical modification and export to the Golgi Apparatus; has ribosomes attached to it
  33. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    responsible for the synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates; does not have ribosomes attached to it
  34. Golgi Apparatus
    modifies, packagse, and ships new proteins to their destinations within or outside of the cell
  35. Secretory vesicle
    contains secretions that will be discharged from the cell
  36. Lysosome
    responsible for the breakdown of substances that may be harmful to the cell
  37. Mitochondria
    responsible for energy production
  38. Christae
    membrane layer that increase surface area inside of mitochondria
  39. Nucleus
    control center for cellular operations; stores cell information
  40. Nuclear pore
    the medium for communication between chemicals and the nucleus
  41. Nucleolus
    transient nuclear organelles that synthesize ribosomal RNA
  42. Chromatin
    uncoiled loose form of DNA when cell isn't dividing (interphase)
  43. Chromosome
    form of DNA that is tightly packed during cell division
  44. Histone protein
    proteins that partially make up the nucleolus
Card Set
cell vocab.txt
Vocabulary relating to the cell.