Ch 12 - Personality (Psychology)

  1. ID
  2. Superego
  3. According to Freud, the Personality Structure contains (3) parts:
    • - id
    • - ego
    • - superego
  4. - Represents the basic drive to survive and be aggressive
    - Freud called this the pleasure principal
    - Wants instant gratification
    - Has childlike qualities & naïveté to it
    - Can also be a tyrant
  5. - Voice of conscious
    - Develops around age 4 or 5
    - The ideal principal
    - Uses words like ought and should
  6. - Personality executor or the manager of the 3 (personality styles)
    - Operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure & pain
  7. - The reality principal deals with the reality of the situation.
    - Seeks gratification in more realistic ways.
    - Very rational and objective.
    Personality Principal
  8. The childhood stages of development during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
    Freud's Psychosexual Stages

    Refer to Table 12.1 Freud's Psychosexual Stages on p.424.
  9. Pleasure centers on the mouth - sucking, biting, chewing
    Oral (0-18 months)
  10. Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
    Anal (18-36 months)
  11. (Oedipus Complex - Males; Electra - Females) Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
    Phallic (3-6 years)
  12. Dormant sexual feelings; this is where you begin to identify with the same sex. Ex. Little boys play with little boys; girls play with girls
    Latency (6 to puberty)
  13. Maturation of sexual interests; about the intimacy
    Genital (puberty on)
  14. Comes from the loving construct
  15. Comes from the death construct
  16. In pshychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconciously distorting reality
    Defense mechanisms
  17. Unconsciously pushing threatening memories, urges, or ideas from conscious awareness: A person may experience loss of memory for unpleasant events.
  18. Attempts to make actions or mistakes seem reasonable: The reasons or excuses given (e.g., “I spank my children because it is good for them.”) sounds rational, but they are not the real reasons for the behavior.
  19. Unconsciously attributing one’s own unacceptable thoughts or impulses to another person: Instead of recognizing that “I hate him”, a person may feel that “He hates me.”
  20. Defending against unacceptable impulses by acting opposite to them: Sexual interest in a married friend might appear as strong dislike instead.
    Reaction formation
  21. Converting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions, and perhaps symbolically expressing them: Sexual or aggressive desires may appear as artistic creativity or devotion to athletic excellence.
  22. Deflecting an impulse from its original target to a less threatening one: Anger at one's boss may be expressed through hostility toward a clerk, a family member, or even the dog.
  23. Simply discounting the existence of threatening impulses: A person may vehemently deny ever having had even the slightest degree of physical attraction to a person of the same sex.
  24. Striving to make up for unconscious impulses or fears: A business executive’s extreme competitiveness might be aimed at compensating for unconscious feelings of inferiority.
  25. The 7th leading cause of death is _____________.
  26. Characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
  27. The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
    MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
  28. - Discontent with Freud’s negative perspective.
    - Humanistic people were bored with the trait and behavior learning theories. Thought the Classical & Operant Learning systems
    2 reasons Humanism came about
  29. - Trait Perspective
    - Humanistic Perspective
    - Social Cognitive Perspective
    3 Perspectives of Personality Styles
  30. Things Known by Others & Known by Self - Arena
    Things Known by Others & Not Known by Self - Blind
    Things Not Known by Others & Known by Self - Hidden
    Things Not Known by Others & Not Known by Self - Unknown


    Johari Window (Joe --> Harry --> Ingram)
    Trait Perspective
  31. - Self Actualization - the process of fulfilling our potential
    - Studied by Abraham Maslow
    Humanistic Perspective
  32. Characteristics of Self-Actualized people:
    • - Self-aware & Self-accepting
    • - Open & spontaneous
    • - Loving & caring
    • - Not paralyzed by others' opinions
    • - Secure in their sense of who they were, their interests were problem-centered rather than self-centered.
  33. A drive inside of you; the need to know about certain things.
  34. What you find beautiful; something that brings peace.
    Aesthetic Value
  35. Living to your fullest potential; being all you can be.
  36. Could be talking to someone that is dead, ESP, something that happens in a dreamlike state.
  37. Being Needs (What make your heart smile)
    1. Transcendence
    2. Self Actualization
    3. Asthetic Value
    4. Cognition

    Deficiency Needs (Self-Centered)
    5. Esteem Needs
    6. Love & Belonging
    7. Safety & Security
    8. Physical

    (Listed in order from that of greatest to least importance.)
    Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
  38. - Self-Centered
    - "I"
    Deficiency Needs
  39. - Solution Needs
    - "We"
    Being Needs
  40. - An attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
    - Carl Rogers introduced this term; he believed that people were basically good & endowed with self-actualizing tendancies.
    Unconditional positive regard
  41. Unconditional Positive Regard has (3) parts:
    • 1. Genuineness
    • 2. Acceptance
    • 3. Empathy
  42. Being open with our feelings, dropping our facades, being transparent and self-disclosing.
  43. I accept you as you are and I see you who you are. You accept the person but not the action.
  44. - I understand what you are going through.
    - I have an idea of what you are going through.
    - Know thyself.
  45. My thoughts and feelings about who I am; how I think and feel about myself.
  46. What I feel about my worth and value; am I a valuable person?
  47. Our readiness to see ourselves favorably (having an excuse for something you did, being self-centered)
    Self-serving bias
  48. - Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and thier social context.

    - Albert Bandura
    Social-Cognitive Perspective
  49. Process of interacting with our environment
    Reciprocal determinsim
  50. Our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless.
    Personal Control
  51. Other people take control of my fate.
    External Locus of Control
  52. I take control of my own fate.
    Internal Locus of Control
  53. As a result of External Locus of Control, the term __________ __________ came about.
    learned helplessness
  54. - You have given up on yourself
    - There are no helpless victims
    - You are the only one that can fix you
    - You have no power over your life
    Learned Helplessness
Card Set
Ch 12 - Personality (Psychology)
Ch 12 - Personality (Psychology)