1. ALL changes name to what in the subcranial region
    the atlanto-axial ligament
  2. where is ALL present?
    C-spine to sacrum
  3. attachments/function of ALL
    attaches firmly to bodies/loosely to intervertebral discs. Resists spine over-extension and Lordosis
  4. PLL present where?
    C-spine to coccyx
  5. appearance of PLL? name change?
    serrated. narrower on bodies and wider at discs. Changes name to tectorial membrane in sub cranial.
  6. where would herniation most often occur?
    lateral intervertebral disc PLL attachments (annulus fibrosis is thinnest here)
  7. function of PLL?
    resists spine flexion
  8. Ligamentum flavum composition/function
    composed mostly of elastic fibers (the yellow ligament) 20% collagen. since it joins adjacent lamina it will resist forward flexion between laminae
  9. interspinous ligaments
    between spinous processes, also limits spinal flexion. poorly developed in c-spine as lig nuchae takes over
  10. intertransverse ligaments
    limits contralateral SB, most highly developed in T-spine
  11. ant. atlanto-axial membrane
    connects C1 to ant. occiput, resists subcranial backward nodding, continuous with ALL
  12. tectorial membrane
    continuous w/ ALL, connects post. body of C2 to anterior inner occiput. covers trans. cerv. and alar ligaments. resists subcranial forward nodding
  13. posterior atlanto-axial membrane
    connects post. arch of C1 to occiput. continuation of lig. flav. Resists subcranial forward nodding
  14. atlantal cruciform ligament
    • makes up the transverse and vertical fibers of the covering of dens deep to the tectorial membrane
    • vert. fibers - attach to foramen magnum & axis (resist distraction, taut during subcervical flexion)
    • transverse fibers - attach to C1, prevents post. dislocation of C2, holds the dens in place
  15. alar ligaments
    attach lateral dens to foramen magnum on both sides. Resist distraction of C1/C2 and O/C1, contralateral rotation, lateral movements
  16. apical ligament
    top of dens to occiput, resists O-C1 distraction
Card Set
ligament review cards